Part 2 The Atomic Bomb
Section 2 Damage
Chapter 2：Damage in the Hypocenter Zone
1. Mayor Okada Jukichi’s Report to the Emperor
2. Public Facilities
(1) Urakami Branch of Nagasaki Prison
(2) Nagasaki Railroad Station
(3) Urakami Railroad Station
(1) Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory
(2) Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks
(3) Mitsubishi Electric Co. Nagasaki Works
(4) Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard
(5) Nagasaki Shipbuilding National Defense Corps
(6) Prisoner-of-War Camp
(7) Unzen Firebrick Factory
(1) Nagasaki Medical College Medical Department, Nagasaki Medical College Pharmaceutical Department and Nagasaki Medical College Hospital
(2) Nagasaki Teachers College
(3) Nagasaki Prefectural Technical School
(4) Nagasaki Prefectural Keihō Middle School
(5) Nagasaki Commercial School
(6) Chinzei School
(7) Junshin Women’s High School
(8) Jōsei Women’s Vocational High School
(9) Mitsubishi Nagasaki Technical School for Youths
(10) Nagasaki Prefectural School for the Blind and Nagasaki Prefectural School for the Deaf
(11) Yamazato Elementary School
(12) Shiroyama Elementary School
(13) Fuchi Elementary School
(14) Nishiurakami Elementary School
(15) Zenza Elementary School
(16) Inasa Elementary School
(17) Nishizaka Elementary School
(18) Nagasaki Women’s Commercial School
(1) Mitsubishi Hospital Urakami Branch
(2) Mitsubishi Hospital Funatsumachi Branch
(3) Urakami Daiichi Hospital
6. Shrines and Temples
(1) Gokoku Shintō Shrine
(2) National Treasure Fukusaiji Temple
(3) Urakami Cathedral
(4) Nishinakamachi Church
(5) Nagasaki Prefectural Fuchi Shintō Shrine
(6) Shōtokuji Temple
(7) Shōenji Temple
(8) Honrenji Temple
7. Communication and News Media
(1) Nagasaki Post Office Telephone Section
(2) Nagasaki Telegraph Office
(3) NHK Nagasaki Broadcasting Station
(4) Nagasaki Shimbun
(1) Kyūshū Electricity Distribution Co. Nagasaki Branch
(2) Saibu Gas Co. Nagasaki Branch
(3) Nippon Express Nagasaki Branch
(4) Nagasaki Electric Tramway Co. Ltd. Ōhashi Business Office
(5) Nagasaki Soy Sauce & Miso Industry Cooperative Association
9. Military Facilities
10. Fatalities among Mobilized Students outside the Hypocenter Zone
Damage in the Hypocenter Zone
This chapter provides details on the physical and personal damage, with reference to the list of damages to prominent buildings mentioned in the previous chapter, particularly buildings in the hypocenter area as well as Nagasaki Railroad Station, Mitsubishi factories, NHK Nagasaki Broadcasting Station, and other facilities.
With regard to the definition of “hypocenter area” and the damages suffered there, Mayor Okada Jukichi’s Gonjōgaki (Report to the Emperor), the first official report from Nagasaki after the atomic bombing, provides details.
As stated in this report, the greatest damage inflicted by the atomic bomb was noted in an area approximately 3,000 meters in diameter or a radius of 1,500 meters of the hypocenter from the Mitsubishi Arms Factory Ōhashi Plant in the north to Ibinokuchi Mitsubishi Arms Factory Morimachi Plant in the south. This area will be used in the present work to mean the “hypocenter area.”
Emperor Shōwa (Hirohito), grieved by the devastation of Hiroshima and Nagasaki by atomic bombs, dispatched a representative to Nagasaki on September 4, 1945. The same day, Nagasaki Governor Nagano Wakamatsu handed Mayor Okada’s report to the representative together with the “Summary Report on Air-Raid Damage to Nagasaki” (also known as the “Nagasaki Atomic Bombing Damage Report”) compiled by Nagasaki Prefecture. These documents comprised nine reports, including that submitted by Mayor Okada Jukichi.
The report from Mayor Okada outlines the damage in the devastated hypocenter area, particularly the “Urakami District, which includes industrial and school zones located to the east of Urakami River, and the Shiroyama District, comprised mainly of residential neighborhoods to the west of the river.”
Gonjōgaki (Report to the Emperor)
Nagasaki Mayor Okada Jukichi
1. The center of destruction caused by the atomic bombing is the northern part of Nagasaki City called the “Urakami district.”
2. Urakami district, formerly a hamlet called “Urakami Yamazato Village,” was incorporated into Nagasaki City in 1920.
3. Catholicism has a long history in this district, and approximately 50% of local residents are Christians.
4. The facts indicate that the atomic bomb exploded approximately 500 meters over the east corner of Mitsubishi sports field, halfway between the Komaba-machi and Shimonokawa streetcar stops.
5. The area sustaining the greatest damage is an area 3,000 meters in diameter extending from the Mitsubishi Arms Factory Main Plant (Ōhashi Plant) in the north to the Mitsubishi Arms Factory Branch Plant (Morimachi Plant) in Ibinokuchi to the south. People and animals within a 100-meter radius of the hypocenter were all instantly killed, except for a few hiding in shelters. Even sturdy buildings were shattered to pieces. (Parts of Hamaguchi-machi, Oka-machi, hillsides and Yamazato were damaged; Komaba-machi sustained moderate damage; gravestones in the graveyard at the foot of Anakobo Temple were all toppled).
6. In and around the Urakami district, houses and factories were instantly destroyed and people and animals were killed, followed by countless fires breaking out, which kept burning until 1:00 a.m. on August 10. The fires burned not only in and around the Urakami district, but also to the north in the city center.
7. The damage could have extended to the entire city, had it not been for the topography: Mt. Kompira, Mt. Iwaya and Mt. Inasa somewhat mitigated the damage to houses, people and animals, apart from the damage in Urakami Valley. Meanwhile, it is regrettable that, since the bombing took place during an air-raid alert, only a few people had taken shelter and that relatively greater damage was inflicted as a result.
8. (Information on damages to buildings in the hypocenter area was provided previously and so is omitted here.)
9. Most of the afflicted neighborhoods were residential areas where workers in governmental, military and other public offices, as well as banks and companies, lived with their families.
10. The city of Nagasaki has a population of 270,000, with 52,000 households, covering an area of seven square ri (approx. 28 square km), and about one-third of this area was damaged by the atomic bombing.
Burned houses: Approx. 15,000 (30% of total)
Dead and missing: Approx. 25,000 (10% of total)
Injured: Approx. 40,000 (15% of total)
Total victims: Approx. 90,000 (victims in central area totaled 40,000).
Please note that, since the number of dead is increasing daily and a large number of people are
missing, it will take considerable time to determine accurate numbers.
The mayor’s report is noteworthy in that the Urakami district is described as having a long history of Catholicism, in addition to the account of physical damage, casualties and geographical features. The exact figure is unknown, but of the approximately 20,000 Christians living in the city at the time, some 15,000 to 16,000 (the majority) lived in the Urakami district and approximately 10,000 fell victim to the atomic bombing.
Details regarding the people who survived by “hiding in shelters” near the hypocenter are provided in the Sixty-Five-Year History of the Nagasaki Municipal Administration. The cave shelters in question had been dug into the slopes on the west, north and northeast side of the elevated land where the Urakami Branch of Nagasaki Prison (Oka-machi) stood. (Names are abbreviated to protect the identity of the people identified.)
Shelter No. 1 located to the west
Kawa---- Fu---- (female, age 49, radiation sickness [positive?] with burns over 15% of the body)
Yoko---- Yō---- (female, age 20, mild injuries from blast [positive])
Fuka---- Yū---- (female, age 16, burned on the face and limbs but no injuries from blast)
Ta---- Shin---- (male, age 13, almost no injuries)
Fuji---- Fu---- (female, age 35, almost no injuries)
Kawa---- Ta---- (female, age 60, details unknown)
Taka---- Ichi--- (male, age 60, burned on the face and hands)
Shelter No. 2 located to the north
Higashi---- Tomo---- (female, age 14, small burns on the face)
Shelter No. 3 located to the northeast
Oku---- Ri---- (female, age 40, no injuries)
Iwa---- Na---- (female, age 50, no injuries)
The next morning, witnesses testified that about 40 bodies were lying from the entrance to a point halfway into shelter No.1, located on the slope to the west.
Follow-up investigations revealed that there were more than 10 other survivors in these shelters.
(1)Urakami Branch of Nagasaki Prison (300 meters north of the hypocenter, Oka-machi)
Present-day Peace Park, site of the Peace Statue, is the former location of the Urakami Branch of Nagasaki Prison, situated closer to the hypocenter than any of the other structures on the list of prominent buildings. All employees and inmates were killed, and the buildings, concrete walls and other structures were instantly pulverized. Nagasaki Prison Director Koyasu Kiichi described the damage as follows in a later report:
September 5, 1945
Report by Nagasaki Prison Director Koyasu Kiichi
1. Fatalities among employees: 18
2. Fatalities among employees’ families: 18
In addition, four family members of the prison surgeon of the Fukahori Shipbuilding Unit were instantly killed.
3. Fatalities among inmates: over 100
4. Offices and residences: all destroyed
Follow-up investigations conducted later revealed the actual extent of casualties at the branch prison:
All the facilities of the Urakami Branch of Nagasaki Prison, located at the hypocenter, were instantly demolished by the atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki. It was the worst catastrophe in the history of prisons in Japan. All 18 employees including Branch Office Manager Soejima, as well as 35 employee family members living in the official residence, 48 convicts and 33 defendants in criminal cases (total 134 persons) were instantly killed.
Under the command of Deputy Chief Warden Tazoe Shimaji, 100 convicts serving in a defense unit at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard attempted to collect the charred bodies in the hypocenter area at the request of the hygiene section at Nagasaki City Hall. Tazoe later wrote as follows about the operation, which lasted for five days:
While engaged in clearing up the ruins of the Urakami Branch of Nagasaki Prison, I saw the bodies of former employees lying on the ground, unrecognizable. Branch Office Manager Soejima had been reduced to a skeleton, still sitting in his chair in the branch office manager’s office. I saw the warden’s wife, who had instantly lost her entire family, digging a grave in the soil with her bare hands and sitting beside the bodies all night. A feeling of grief welled up inside me. On the third day, Nagasaki Prison Director Koyasu rushed to the scene from the head office in Isahaya and hugged me, saying in tears, ‘Oh, you are all right.’ 147
The casualties suffered by the defense unit at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard, which was on duty in an organized mobilization from Nagasaki Prison, will be touched upon in the section entitled “Nagasaki Shipyard Defense Unit.”
2) Nagasaki Railroad Station (2.5 km south-southeast of the hypocenter, Onoue-machi)
Trains were arriving and departing at Nagasaki Railroad Station as usual on the day of the atomic bombing. Of the nine eastbound trains scheduled to depart that day, the fourth turned out to be the last. Bound for Moji Port in northern Kyūshū, the train left Nagasaki Railroad Station at 10:10 a.m., the only one to connect at Shimonoseki with a train bound for Tōkyō.
The fourth of ten westbound trains scheduled to depart that day also turned out to be the last. The train left Sasebo and arrived at Nagasaki Railroad Station via Hizen-Yamaguchi Railroad Station at 8:55 a.m. The fifth westbound train was scheduled to arrive at Nagasaki Railroad Station at 11:10 a.m. via Haiki and Tosu. If it had been running on schedule, it would have passed through the vicinity of the hypocenter at the time of the atomic bombing. However, since it had been delayed as much as half an hour at Nagayo Railroad Station, it luckily managed to escape the disaster, and so became the first relief train.
According to Matsuno Hideo, the train scheduled to leave Nagasaki Railroad Station at 10:10 a.m. for Moji Port left about thirty minutes late, at 10:38 a.m., from the second platform at track No. 3, due to air-raid alarms issued throughout Kyūshū that morning. Remembered Matsuno in his memoir:
Kikuchi Iso’o, chief assistant stationmaster at Nagasaki Railroad Station, saw off a train bound for Moji Port, raising his hand in salute in his uniform and wearing white gloves and his red uniform cap with a gold stripe. That was his last proud moment on his platform.
His desk was located next to a fireplace in the rear-center of the spacious stationmaster’s office, with its back to the wall between the ticket office and the stationmaster’s room. The assistant stationmaster, Kinoshita Kikuo, who was on duty that day, was working at the fare adjustment window on the platform side, checking the directory for ticket refunds for the delayed train after departure. At the adjacent desk, Gotō Fumiko from the Women’s Commercial School Cooperation Unit was helping in the back office, handling money and processing slips. Seven or eight other employees were also on duty in the stationmaster’s office.
When the small hand of the clock pointed to eleven, a relaxed atmosphere predominated in the office because the employees had time to prepare for the delayed westbound train and because it would be some time before the next departure at 12:40 p.m.
Then suddenly there was a brilliant flash of light and a huge explosion. The blackboard hanging on the shelf between the ticket office and the stationmaster’s room dropped and fell over on Mr. Kinoshita’s head but then covered the space between the shelf and his desk, allowing him to lie safely on the floor in the space below. Kinoshita threw himself flat on the floor. Then he crawled through the space under his desk and out from the entrance on the platform side. The employees at the office desks all fled from the office using the entrance either on the platform side or the front of the station, then took cover in the station air-raid shelter.
It was around 12:30 p.m. when smoke began to curl up from the high roof of Nagasaki Railroad Station. Fujimoto Kōichi, who worked at the station as a motorman, was off duty that day at his lodging near Nakamachi Catholic Church when the atomic bomb exploded. He fled to an air-raid shelter at the back of Honrenji Temple. After a while, he was surprised to see smoke rising from the roof of Nagasaki Railroad Station below and a man who looked like a firefighter extinguishing a fire. He rushed down the hill to the station. When he got there, a fire engine from the Nagasaki Fire Department had already arrived.
Assistant Stationmaster Kinoshita did not know how long he had been in the air-raid shelter when he realized that he had not seen Chief Assistant Stationmaster Kikuchi. He scrambled out of the shelter with other station employees to search for his colleague. Then he came across Mr. Fujimoto on one of the platforms, and the two assistant stationmasters grasped each other’s hands, overjoyed to know that they were both safe. In a few moments, however, they would confront the death of their superior.
They found Chief Assistant Stationmaster Kikuchi dead, still sitting at his desk in the stationmaster’s office. He had been killed instantly by an injury to the back of his head and spine when the large chimney, extending up to the restaurant on the second floor and connected to the fireplace on the wall between the ticket office and the chief assistant stationmaster’s office, collapsed on him. About two meters from Mr. Kikuchi, Gotō Fumiko was also lying dead, face down with her head pointing toward Mr. Kikuchi. She had also suffered head injuries from bricks falling from the upper floor…
The two assistant stationmasters, Fujimoto and Kinoshita, dug the bodies of Mr. Kikuchi and Miss Gotō out of the rubble and brought them out onto the second platform. The fire burning in the main station building seemed to have died out but flared up again beyond control. The fire engine at the station was stored in the area near the second platform. By 2:00 p.m., the two-story wooden station main building, which comprised the stationmaster’s room, stationmaster’s office, ticket office, waiting room and restaurant, had been reduced to
The main building of Nagasaki Railroad Station and the adjacent buildings containing track maintenance and power facilities as well as the Nagasaki Railroad Medical Clinic had all burned to the ground by nightfall. Hirosako Kōichi, assistant stationmaster and fire marshal, describes the situation at the Nagasaki Engine Yard as follows in his memoir:
About 20 minutes after the explosion of the atomic bomb, I was informed that an old (scrapped) freight car, placed in the train shed as a storage place for straw, had caught fire. When I ran up to the train shed, the fire was already beyond control. I could do nothing but assemble several uninjured people to help keep the rescue ambulance, connected to the burning freight car, from catching fire. After a desperate struggle we finally managed to separate the ambulance from the freight car. However, flames burst out from the pillars of a house nearby. We frantically sprayed water on the fire, but again fire broke out in another house. In this way we had to extinguish one fire after another in six or seven buildings- even though our group was too small even to form a bucket relay- by handling a fire pump with clumsy hands. 149
A historical work on the history of the Nagasaki Engine Yard describes the damage to Nagasaki Railroad Station buildings as follows:
Completely Demolished: investigators’ office, coal feeders’ station, coal feeding training room
Partially Demolished: station office, assistant motorman’s office, bathhouse
Completely burned: warehouses
This work states that all tile-roofed buildings in the Nagasaki Railroad Station compound were completely gutted except for the Nagasaki Engine Yard building.
(3) Urakami Railroad Station (one kilometer south of the hypocenter, Iwakawa-machi)
Urakami Railroad Station was completely destroyed. The general merchandise division building next to it was also demolished and reduced to ashes. The station was small in size but served an important role as a war materials depot for the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks and Mitsubishi Arms Factory Morimachi Plant and therefore had a large staff. On the day of the atomic bombing, approximately 70 people were working there, including employees of the general merchandise division, workers at the railroad crossing, and freight train crewmembers, in addition to 25 Urakami Railroad Station employees. Very few of these people survived the atomic bombing, just as most of the approximately 15 mobilized students and women’s volunteer labor unit members were killed.
The following is the testimony of a general merchandise division employee who survived:
I was at the cookhouse when the atomic bomb exploded, and I was blown 13 or 14 meters away from the spot where I had been standing. The next thing I knew was I was buried with six other people under the roof, which had collapsed onto the floor. Only three including me were saved. The people outside were injured beyond recognition, their skin peeling off as though boiling hot water had been poured on them. All the mobilized workers had been killed. When I finally managed to crawl out from under the debris, I realized that a woman was groaning, trapped under a fallen beam. I wanted to rescue her, but flames were rushing at me from every direction, and I left with painful reluctance. 150
Sugihara Hiroyoshi, assistant stationmaster at the Nagasaki Power Yard Office, described the disastrous scene at Urakami Railroad Station as follows:
At around five in the morning on August 10, I was walking along the railroad tracks from Nagayo Railroad Station with three other men including Mr. Yoshida, technical assistant stationmaster, toward the Power Yard office building located at Nagasaki Railroad Station. Passing through Michino’o Station, we saw American aircraft flying at a low altitude toward the hypocenter area, presumably to observe the effects of the atomic bombing. Since the railroad was still the only practicable route – destroyed houses were blocking the national highway (then the prefectural highway) – people old and young, men, women and children were all walking in silence with ghastly expressions on their faces.
When we reached the area around Hashiguchi-machi, two military policemen in uniform and two men in plain clothes were gathering up slips of paper (these were psychological warfare leaflets entitled nihonkokumin ni tsugu (warning to the Japanese people) that had been scattered around the area and railroad tracks. As we approached, they asked us to help, but we declined, explaining that we had to hurry forward.
In the yard at Urakami Railroad Station, a westbound freight train was stalled due to the atomic bombing. Inside a freight car marked “wamu”, five or six horses were lying dead on their sides. There was no one in the locomotive; I later heard that all the crewmembers died within two days after August 9. Inside the station yard, the naked corpses of about ten men and women were scattered about, apparently blown from their residences by the bomb blast. In addition, the corpses of fifteen or sixteen men and women lay along the concrete sidewall of the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks (located behind Urakami Railroad Station), bellies burst open and eyeballs dangling from their sockets, apparently hurled against the wall by the blast.
The starting signal for eastbound trains had not broken off but, even though made of cast iron, had been instantaneously bent backward by the intense heat and blast.
The Urakami Railroad Station building had been reduced to shapelessness. It was impossible to tell whether it had burned down or been demolished by the blast. The bodies of the stationmaster and communications engineer were laid out in their uniforms on a steel bench on the platform. No other railroad staff member was around.
We prayed for the dead with our palms together and then left for the commodity warehouse in the corner of the yard, formerly under my jurisdiction. We found that the warehouse had been completely gutted. The glass lighting equipment stored inside the warehouse had melted like toffee. There was nothing usable except a few electric cables and wires. The warehouse-keeper, Mr. Tsuruta, was nowhere to be found. I would hear later that he had escaped instant death but had died the next day after returning home.
Casualties of railroad staff at Nagasaki Railroad Station and Urakami Railroad Station were as follows:
Total: 318 (of 700 railroad staff at the time)
Kitamoto Hiroshi and Ishikawa Kōichi of Tōkyō University compiled these data on the basis of a survey conducted by the Nagasaki Administrative Division of the Moji Railroad Division on November 20, 1945.
The details of casualties by station are as follows 151 :
1. Fatalities at Nagasaki Railroad Station (by location and cause)
|Classification||Inside station building||Outside station building||Subtotal|
|Instant death||External injury||14||1||15|
|External injury&thermal burn||1||0||1|
|Delayed death||External injury||2||1||3|
2. Fatalities at Nagasaki Railroad Station (by post)
|Classification||External injury||Thermal burn||Unknown||Subtotal|
|Power yard||1||1||-||2||Telephone booth||1||0||-||1|
3. Fatalities at Urakami Railroad Station (by location and cause)
|External injury||Thermal burn||Radioactive contamination||External injury&thermal burn||Unknown|
|Inside station building||6||0||0||1||-||7|
|Outside station building||0||9||2||2||-||13|
|External injury||Thermal burn||Radioactive contamination||External injury&thermal burn||Unknown|
|Inside station building||13||0||2||4||1||20|
|Outside station building||1||20||0||0||0||21|
4. Fatalities at Urakami Railroad Station (by post)
|Classification||External injury||Thermal burn||Radioactive contamination||External injury&radioactive contamination||Heat blast injury||External injury&thermal burn||Unknown||Subtotal|
|In train cars||0||-||-||-||-||-||1||1|
Moreover, according to a survey by the National Railroad Workers’ Union Council for Atomic Bomb Victims, 138 railroad staff died.
147 Senji gyōkei jitsuroku (Actual Record of Penal Servitude during World War Two) ^
148 Matsuno Hideo, Hibakukisha no shōgen: taiyō ga ochiru (The Sun Falls: The Testimony of a Reporter Exposed to the Atomic Bombing) (Nagasaki Committee for the Publication of Atomic Bomb Testimonies, 1973) ^
149 Hirosako Kōichi, Ikinokoritaru warera tsudoite (We the Survivors Gathered) ^
150 Kokutetsu Bunka (Japanese National Railroads Culture), No.7, 1970 ^
151 Nagasaki City (ed.), Nagasaki shisei rokujūgonen shi (Sixty-Five-Year History of the Nagasaki Municipal Administration) ^
1) Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory
The damage sustained by the buildings of the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory in the hypocenter area is as follows:
Headquarters, Ōhashi Plant (1.3 kilometers north of the hypocenter, Ōhashi-machi): Completely destroyed
Morimachi Plant (1.4 kilometers south of the hypocenter, Mori-machi): Completely destroyed and half burned
Municipal Commercial School Factory (1.1 kilometers northwest of the hypocenter, Aburagi-machi): Completely burned
Shiroyama Elementary School (0.5 kilometers west of the hypocenter, Shiroyama-machi 1-chōme): Completely burned
Yamazato Elementary School (0.7 kilometers north of the hypocenter, Hashiguchi-machi): Completely burned
Nagasaki Teachers College (1.8 kilometers north-northeast of the hypocenter, Yonogō): Completely burned
Sannō Dormitory (0.8 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter, Sakamoto-machi): Completely burned
Nishigō Dormitory (1.6 kilometers north-northwest of the hypocenter, Nishigō): Completely burned
Zenza Dormitory (1.5 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter, Shōtoku Temple, Zenza-machi 1-chōme): Completely destroyed
Ofunagura Dormitory (2.1 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter, Tenrikyō Temple, Ofunagura-machi): Completely burned
Sumiyoshi Dormitory (2.2 kilometers north of the hypocenter, Tōhokugō): Completely burned
Hamaguchi Dormitory (0.7 kilometers south-southwest of the hypocenter, Hamaguchi-machi): Completely burned
Seifū Dormitory (0.3 kilometers east of the hypocenter, Yamazato-machi): Completely burned
Regarding the buildings of Ōhashi Plant and Morimachi Plant, 32,515 tsubo (approx. 107,462 m²) of 40,337 tsubo (approx. 133,314 m²) were rendered unusable.
The death toll among the work force amounted to 2,273 of 17,792 workers including the manager Toyohara Gōzō.
As described above, the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory sustained the greatest damage in the hypocenter area, in all aspects. This explains why there are many atomic bomb memoirs and testimonies concerning this area.
The following is an excerpt from the memoir of Fukuda Yoshirō (then sub-manager and first production division chief) who was exposed to atomic bomb radiation in the Ōhashi Plant headquarters:
On that day, since the technical division chief, Mr. Kaai, was off sick, I made the rounds of the technical division after the air-raid alarm had been lifted, and I went to the production division chief’s office. The section chief, Mr. Ichikawa, and other workers of the forge plant complained that they had no coal, because the transportation section had not delivered any.
I picked up the phone, called the procurement division chief, Mr. Shibata, and gave him an earful. Finally I hung up the receiver because the division chief was no longer responding. Suddenly, I felt as though I had been struck with a hammer on the back right side of my head, and I was knocked flat on the floor. The next moment I realized that I had been exposed to the explosion of a bomb but that I was alive. Then something fell on my head. At the time there were seven people including the first lieutenant, Mr. Hachiya, and the engineers, Mr. Kurata and Mr. Ichikawa, in the production division chief’s office, but nobody responded when I called out names. Realizing that I had large lacerations on the right side of my face and right arm, I left in the direction of the examination room to receive treatment. Something was strange about the entire scene. The examination room had disappeared without a trace! Workers were flocking toward the second gate shouting, ‘Where should we go?’ I looked around to see what was happening. Everything had been destroyed, with no trace of buildings; the area was completely changed. Witnessing this catastrophe, I began to wonder if the same kind of bomb as that dropped on Hiroshima had been used on Nagasaki, because I was aware of the progress made by German military forces on the development of an atomic bomb.
The factory workers’ wooden cafeteria caught fire. I shouted, ‘Can anybody come and extinguish this fire?’ However, nobody volunteered. Becoming painfully aware that it was my duty to cope with this disastrous state of affairs, I headed in the direction of the main building and technical division. On my way there, I heard a voice calling for help from under the rubble of the watch officer’s office (navy) and ordered several passersby to rescue the person. At the technical division someone was shouting, ‘Manager, I’ve been hit, I’ve lost my arm!’ and many other people were breathing feebly. I could do nothing but encourage them with the words, ‘Don’t give up.’ The interior of the concrete building at the technical division had already caught fire and so was impassable.
While all of this was going on, blood began gushing from my wounds, and I was on the verge of fainting. Nothing could be done about the factory, so I reluctantly gave up the idea of rectifying the situation and headed for the third gate to leave the ruins. However, I could not get through the building renovation office due to fire and so had no choice but to head for the front gate. On my way there, Mr. Torii, an engineer in the materials research laboratory, was crouching on the stone steps at the south entrance to the technical division. Seeing the terrible bleeding from my face, he offered to accompany me. I declined his offer, saying that he did not have to because he also was injured. I left through the front gate. I was trying to reach Iwaya Bridge, along with the many people I had met on the way, but all the routes were blocked due to fires burning ahead of us and a destroyed bridge to the left.
In this area I saw a crowd of people burned and covered in blood, with clothing hanging off in shreds. Some were crying for help; some were groaning with pain. Seeing them, I thought this was a true scene of carnage and wondered if the characters depicted in scenes of hell might have been modeled after real persons in just this sort of predicament.
I wanted to receive treatment at the university hospital, but I could not imagine that it was functioning after the bombing. Crossing the railroad tracks, I trudged along a path between rice fields intending to go home and thinking that I would be able to receive treatment at my boarding house, which was in the forest on the west side of the railroad tracks, because it was the property of an elderly physician named Dr. Iwanaga. Then I found that the forest had disappeared completely. Seeing nothing there, I suddenly felt so worn out and drained of energy that I sat down on the field. The foreman, Mr. Shimomura, also sat there to console me. However, I collapsed onto the ground out of weakness. I vaguely remember that many people were walking toward a mountain to take shelter and that they passed me saying things like, ‘This poor man is dying too.’ 1
Fortunately, Sumiyoshi Tunnel Factory (2.3 kilometers north-northwest of the hypocenter) did not sustain heavy damage, although the pressure of the explosion and the blast wind that entered the tunnel had caused a few injuries due to falling rocks. The factory had become a refuge for the seriously and slightly injured flocking from the Ōhashi Plant and Sumiyoshi Dormitory. Miyazaki Akio describes the situation several hours after the atomic bombing as follows:
At 11:02 a.m. on August 9, I was supervising the making of torpedo parts in the middle of the sixth tunnel of the Sumiyoshi tunnel factory, where a temporary factory had been established to escape air raids. I was approximately 15 meters from the entrance. Suddenly, I saw the flash of a blue light outside. After two or three huge explosions at two-second intervals, rocks fell from the ceiling. I took refuge in the space under the machinery, as I was trained to do, assuming that bombs had fallen on the tunnel factory. After a while, when it became quiet, I left the tunnel. What I saw outside was a sea of flames engulfing everything, including residences and mountainside forests. The section chief, Tanaka Toshiharu, was unable to open his eyes due to an injury to his face. I asked a few women volunteers to take the section chief into the middle of the tunnel for treatment.
I immediately sent Corporal Sakaguchi to contact headquarters at the Ōhashi Plant. However, he returned after a while and reported, ‘It’s impossible to reach headquarters. Sheets of flames are billowing outside!’ I doubted his words because I was sure that it had only been two bombs. When I looked outside again, the flames had spread over a far wider area than I had seen just a moment ago. There really are some mysterious things in this world. I was certain that it had been only two bombs—why were the fires burning all over?
The color of the sky suggested rain. I went back in the tunnel, wishing that it would rain soon. Inside the tunnel, documents, slips and drawings were scattered about, and desks were destroyed beyond recognition.
I placed candles in places where they did not block the passage. I could not get through to headquarters on the telephone. A little while later, two injured persons approached me. One had a burn on his face, with his ears torn and sagging down; the other had a large burn and laceration on his head, from which blood was gushing. I am not a doctor and had no idea what to do for them.
Other injured people were arriving at the tunnel in great numbers, perhaps more than 100. Using a can of fresh seed oil to treat burn injuries was just an idea off the top of my head. I asked the women volunteers to attend to the injured with the seed oil. The majority of victims were girls from the volunteer unit who had worked the night shift and returned that morning. They had come to Nagasaki from their homes in Saga, Kumamoto, Miyazaki and Kagoshima and were willingly enduring a hard life in the Sumiyoshi Dormitory. They had devoted themselves to their duties day and night, believing that they would eventually be able to delight in Japan’s victory. When they had left that morning, they had cheerfully said to me, ‘Goodbye Mr. Miyazaki. Please take care. Good bye.’ However, the girls I saw now had burns on their faces and shoulders and were half-naked. The reason that their eyes looked bleary might have been that their eyebrows were scorched. They were half-naked probably because their white shirts had burned. Tears welled up in my eyes when I saw those girls reduced to mere shadows of their former selves.
The sky remained dark. Under the sullen clouds produced at the time of the explosion, the Ōhashi Plant was still burning fiercely. Smoke belching from the factory covered the sky. The billowing smoke changed color in spectral hues, from red to yellow, purple, brown, blue, black and gray.
The sounds of explosions were coming from the sky. Every time we heard an explosion we shook with fear, wondering if bombs would be dropped on us. Not only those injured but also the rescuers ran into the tunnel to escape another bomb.
Around 2:00 p.m. we received a notice from headquarters at the Ōhashi Plant to evacuate victims and female workers to Michino’o reservoir. The group leader, Kubo Noboru, immediately took more than 60 people, aside from those seriously injured, to the reservoir.
The seriously injured, who stayed with us, all craved water. However, there was no way to know what we should do in such a case, so we had no choice but to give them what they requested. We ran out of what little medicine we had. Although we managed to improvise by applying pressure to the wounds of those injured, using their towels and other belongings, we were at our wits’ end regarding treatment of the seriously injured. The best treatment we could give them was to lay them down on desks and straw mats. 2
Meanwhile, like the Nagasaki Arms Factory Ōhashi Plant, the Morimachi Plant had also sustained extensive damage. The following is an excerpt from the memoir of Nakata Katsujirō, who worked at the latter:
On August 9, the day of the atomic bombing, I took shelter due to the air-raid alarm issued soon after I arrived at my post, and I returned to my work after the alarm was cancelled around 8:30 a.m. I went to the machine tender and group leader, Mr. Ichimaru, to adjust the torpedo guidance system. Later, at the moment I had returned to him to perform a drilling procedure on the back buoyancy chamber of the torpedoes, the atomic bomb exploded.
The fierce bomb blast knocked me down. After a while I stood up, but I could see nothing. I stood there thinking that my eyes must have been injured. About 30 minutes later, as the dense clouds of yellow smoke enveloping the area thinned out, my blurred vision cleared. Looking myself over, I found that I was drenched in blood.
However, since I was able to walk, I fled from the assembly plant. Looking back, I saw that the second floor of the plant had been destroyed and that the machine shop was flattened. The blacksmith’s workshop had managed to retain its shape, but the copper works and foundry had been destroyed.
With regard to my being thrown to the floor at the post of Mr. Ichimaru, I was informed later that the oxygen torpedo type 95’s air chamber, which had been placed on the planometer next to the spot where I was lying flat, was about to topple over. If the air chamber had fallen, I would have been killed. I was also informed that fatalities, among only the cooperation unit working at the factory, amounted to nearly 300 persons. 3
The general damage and situation regarding gathering bodies and rescuing the injured at the various Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory plants are described as follows in the factory history:
Actual condition at the time of atomic bombing
Among the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory facilities, the Ōhashi Plant sustained devastating damage. Particularly, wooden structures such as the headquarters office and factory workers’ cafeteria were instantly destroyed. It was not long before the cafeteria debris caught fire.
The disastrous scenes of these buildings were beyond description, with far more fatalities and casualties than other buildings. Some employees at work in the offices or factories were crushed to death and some died with no protection or escape. Even many of those who seemed not to have sustained any external injuries became sick and died within 10 days after leaving the buildings (a phenomenon observed frequently among the atomic bomb survivors).
The buildings in each factory of the production division were either steel-framed or steel-lined, aside from a few of reinforced concrete construction. As a result, they were vulnerable to the devastating power of the atomic bomb. The buildings were reduced to pitiful carcasses, with roof tiles and surrounding steel plates smashed to pieces and scattered in all directions, their steel frames bent down on top of each other as if they were taffy.
Some of the employees working inside factories were instantly killed; some were calling for help after suffering serious injuries; some were running about in confusion, seeking a way out. The scene was a literal hell on earth, with bodies lying in heaps and a gruesome atmosphere prevailing throughout the factories.
Although the facades of the technical division building and other reinforced concrete structures were intact, window frames, interiors and furniture were scattered about. In the technical division building particularly, fire broke out at the corner of the second floor, killing quite a number of people.
The Morimachi Plant was further from the hypocenter than the Ōhashi Plant, and most of its buildings were made of reinforced concrete. However, buildings other than the office and research institute had a lower blast resistance because of their structural features and so were completely destroyed, aside from some parts of the machine shop. For this reason, the Morimachi Plant was also transformed into an indescribable spectacle of carnage and destruction, the number of people crushed to death rivaling that at the Ōhashi Plant.
Furthermore, the factories established at the Municipal Commercial School, Shiroyama Elementary School (some workers of the material and payroll sections had evacuated there to escape air raids) and Yamazato Elementary School (some workers of the accounting section had evacuated there to escape air raids) sustained damages comparable to the Ōhashi Plant. Fires broke out in the ruins of dormitories in Sannō (for those on labor service), Nishigō (for mobilized students), Sumiyoshi (for the women’s volunteer labor units) and other places in the Urakami district, causing a large number of casualties. After nightfall, the light from embers illuminated the darkness and shed a bloodcurdling light on the dead bodies strewn about.
Rescuing and treating the injured
Horrified by the unprecedented catastrophe, factory workers tried desperately to escape the site, fearing further air raids and worried sick about their families’ safety. Not only the uninjured, but also injured people who could walk set off to cross mountains and go home the long way around. Very few people stayed behind. Senior staff and a few other heroic people with a strong sense of responsibility fulfilled their duties by working for days without rest or sleep, striving to treat the injured, keep buildings from burning and dispose of the dead.
It was difficult if not impossible to conduct rescue activities and treatment for the thousands of injured: fires were burning all around, buildings were destroyed, and enemy airplanes were circling overhead. At the Ōhashi Plant, the leaders decided to carry seriously injured persons to a nearby safety zone and then to transfer them to the nearest first-aid facility by company truck. However, the situation had become increasingly chaotic, both inside and outside the factory, and time was ticking away with little progress and a sense of impatience.
Fortunately, a relief train arrived in front of the Ōhashi Plant in the afternoon, and efforts were made to transport injured civilians to safety zones (in Nagayo, Isahaya, Ōmura and Kawatana) north of Michino’o. Most of the injured (about 1,400 people) at the Ōhashi Plant were placed on this train and transferred to medical institutions in the areas mentioned above. As for the Morimachi Plant, relief trains were rarely used, owing to track damage at a point south of the Ōhashi Plant. The injured at the former were mainly conveyed to first-aid facilities in Nagasaki City, including Shinkōzen Elementary School, Katsuyama Elementary School, Irabayashi Elementary School, Nagasaki Economy Vocational School and other facilities.
In due course, first-aid treatment for the injured was nearly complete. However, we could not get around to injured people waiting on the brink of death in nearby air-raid shelters, nor to the people trapped and dying under fallen debris in the ruins of the factory. For this reason, although it was late at night, I sent two brave young messengers through the blazing town to the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard, to request the immediate dispatch of a relief party.
Before dawn the next day, the rescue party arrived, a group of about 300 workers under the command of the administration director, Mori Yonejirō. After that further relief parties arrived: 180 from the Kawatana Naval Arsenal, 150 from the 21st Naval Arsenal in Ōmura, and 150 from a coast defense ship anchored in Nagasaki Harbor. Relief activity commenced in the early morning hours of August 10.
The arrival of these relief parties certainly cheered up the rescuers. They assisted in rescuing the injured in each division and in the difficult operation of digging up bodies from under the rubble of reinforced concrete. As a result, in both the Ōhashi and Morimachi plants, over 500 bodies in total were laid to rest in one week. 4
Next, the data on casualties is introduced below. At the time of the atomic bombing, the number of workers at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory totaled 17,792 (workers actually in service: approx. 10,000).
This number includes:
Office workers: 1,362 (including 302 persons under military service)
Full-time workers: 354
Subsidiary full-time workers: 565
Technical or clerical workers and other service workers: 443
Factory workers: 16,430 (9,244 mobilized for labor service, 2,302 newly mobilized, 804 women from volunteer labor units, and 4,080 mobilized students)
The Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory sent the first report on the atomic bombing to the company headquarters in Tōkyō on August 12, four days after the atomic bombing. The report included the following details:
Estimated number of workers in service on the day of atomic bombing: approx. 7,500
Casualties (round figures)
Dead: up to 300; seriously injured: over 1,200 (including 800 admitted to hospitals); slightly injured: over 3,000
Estimated number of workers in service on the day of atomic bombing: approx. 1,750
Casualties (round figures)
Dead: up to 150; seriously injured: approx. 200 (including 120 admitted to hospitals); slightly injured: number unknown
However, the term “round figures” means that the number of casualties had still not been confirmed.
The number of casualties at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory as of the end of August 1945 was as follows:
Dead: approx. 630 (5.6% of the total workers on duty on the day of the atomic bombing)
Injured: approx. 2,170 (19.0% of the total workers on duty on the day of the atomic bombing)
Missing: approx. 2,500 (21.9% of the total workers on duty on the day of the atomic bombing)
Total: approx. 5,300 (46.5% of the total workers on duty on the day of the atomic bombing)
These data were reported in the above-mentioned Gonjōgaki (Report to the Emperor) with the following comment: “We at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory are mortified by the current unimaginable situation, in which we have lost most of our executive staff including the director. We feel particular chagrin over the fact that so many persons who were recognized as only very slightly injured at first gradually deteriorated in health and died. We are also at a loss for words when considering that these victims include many teenage students mobilized to provide labor service.”
Follow-up surveys were conducted later on the state of casualties at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory:
|Dead: 2,273||Office workers: 335|
|Factory workers: 1,358|
|Mobilized students: 580|
|Injured: 5,679||Office workers: 361|
|Factory workers: 4,260|
|Mobilized students: 1,058|
The estimated number of workers on duty on the day of the atomic bombing was cited in the Nagasaki Atomic Bombing Damage Report.
2) Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks
The following is a list of the principal Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks buildings damaged in the hypocenter area.
No. 2 factory (0.8 kilometers south of the hypocenter, Iwakawa-machi): Completely destroyed
Main building (1.1 kilometers south of the hypocenter, Mori-machi): Completely destroyed
No. 1 factory (1.2 kilometers south of the hypocenter, Mori-machi): Completely destroyed
No. 4 factory (1.3 kilometers south of the hypocenter, Mori-machi): Completely destroyed
No. 3 factory (1.4 kilometers south of the hypocenter, Takenokubo-machi): Completely destroyed
Chinzei School (0.5 kilometers southwest of the hypocenter, Takenokubo-machi): Completely destroyed
Keihō Middle School (0.9 kilometers south-southwest of the hypocenter, Takenokubo-machi): Completely destroyed
Shisei Dormitory (0.6 kilometers west-southwest of the hypocenter, Shiroyama-machi 1-chōme): Completely burned
Kongō Dormitory (0.6 kilometers northwest of the hypocenter, Ōhashi-machi): Completely burned
As described above, the main factory buildings were completely destroyed, leaving only a few chimneys and the framework of the No. 4 factory and other buildings rising from the debris. The industrial equipment also sustained heavy damage, with 57 out of a total of 626 machines destroyed. However, this figure only indicates the number of separately used machines, which were pulverized. In fact, since most of the machines were rendered inoperable by the damage, the factories generally lost their manufacturing capability.
The testimony of Fujiwara Hiroe, a former administrative employee at the steelworks, sheds light on the damages suffered at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks:
Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks had reinforced its air-defense system after the air raid on August 1 by adopting a one-day duty, one-day backup, one-day day-off system. On the day of the atomic bombing, I was on duty for air defense as a member of the Third Defense Squadron, Special Protection Unit and was stationed in the underground air-raid shelter of the main building. Around 10:45 a.m., the manager, Kubota Yutaka, entered the air-raid shelter with a few subordinates after a patrol. In about ten minutes, emergency radio news was released.
‘This is an emergency. Enemy aircraft were spotted over Shimabara Peninsula. Be on the alert!’ The news was repeatedly broadcast. I rushed to the duty chief’s office. Before long, another news report was broadcast on the radio. ‘The enemy aircraft flying over Shimabara Peninsula is currently headed west.’ I reeled in shock because my instinct told me that it was ‘headed west’ to Nagasaki! The duty chief then ordered us to our watch stations. I went to the communication group chief’s office and delivered the order to Mori-san, who was lying down on some lined-up chairs. Stretching himself, Mori-san slowly got up to go to the lookout on the rooftop.
At that moment, a purple flash illuminated the room and a thunderous explosion assailed the air-raid shelter, flinging several people, including Mr. Kubota, against the wall. Since my body was shielded by the partition of the communication group chief’s office, I escaped direct exposure to the blast and threw myself onto the floor.
The next moment, there came a surge of shrieks and grievous cries calling for help from around the office upstairs. I assumed that a bomb had directly hit the office.
The shelter turned pitch dark. Groping my way back to the spot beside the radio, I managed to pick up the jacket and anti-air-raid hood I had taken off a moment before and, putting them on, ran up the stairs to the labor section on the west side. On my way up, I found someone lying on the concrete stairs. I peered at the face to identify the person, who was lying on his back in the middle of the stairs. It was Imari Junichirō, the chief of the labor section. His huge body was motionless. He seemed to have only lost consciousness, but he might have been dead. Thinking that I had to come back later, I hurried to my room upstairs for the moment.
I couldn’t run up the stairs quickly because the chairs and telephones from the reception room were scattered about. When I reached the corridor on the second floor, I was taken aback, with my eyes wide open. There was no room or office on the south side, nothing but a swath of wreckage and open space where walls had once divided the manager’s office, guest room, reception room, accounting section, steelworks division chief’s office and naval supervisor’s office. The door on the west entrance to the corridor was gone, revealing the mountain greenery outside. This could not have been done even by the direct hit of an ordinary bomb. I had no idea what had happened. I was at a loss even to identify the room where I belonged (the steelworks division chief’s office).
After a while I realized where I was. Then I saw two female workers, Ogawa Ayako and Moto’o Toshie, calling for help. They were stuck with their legs pinned under a long, slender container for coverings, upon which a file cabinet had collapsed. I immediately started searching for something to use as a lever and managed to rescue them. The division chief, Ishikawa Raizō, and another female worker, Abe Kiyoko, were off-duty that day.
The sky, which had darkened like a twilight gloom after the explosion, was gradually growing light, but a thick gray cloud (it might have been layers of gas, rather than a cloud) covered Nagasaki at a low altitude as far as the eye could see, creating an eerie atmosphere. Rescue operations soon began. Some people had been instantly killed in the main building of the steelworks, but most survived even though they had sustained injuries. The level of injuries varied. People who could walk headed for the mountains or air-raid shelters, to take cover. The nearest designated facility for escaping air raids, across from Yanagawa Bridge, was selected as a temporary shelter outside the main building for seriously injured people who could not walk. Injured people were carried to the site one after another and laid down there on the tatami mats that had been arranged to create a floor. (This site was selected for safety reasons, in case a fire broke out in the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks).
At this point there were approximately 20 persons who were well and engaging in rescue operations, including Mr. Kubota. They made full use of only four stretchers. I apologize for not remembering the faces of the majority of the people who worked heroically with sweat and tears.
The only people I can still clearly remember are the manager, Mr. Kubota, as well as Yasunaka Shōkichi, Imada Yoshito, Hirai Sunao, Konaka Yoshiki, Kaai Shōkichi, Kubo Hisashi, Yamanaka Yoshiharu, and Hashimoto Nobuo. I only have vague recollections of the other people.
While carrying the stretcher to and from Yanagawa Bridge during rescue operations, I came to understand the circumstances. The damage extended not only to the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks but also to a wide area. I was horrified by the power of the bombing. The No. 2 factory building was completely bent out of shape, with the hard steel frames melted like sugar craft. The north window sashes had caved toward the inside. Private houses in the area ranging from Takenokubo to Shiroyama and Urakami had been destroyed. Beholding the catastrophic disaster that had completely changed the landscape, I was full of doubts and fears, not knowing what force had wrought this cruel havoc. These doubts and fears gripped me with an indescribable force, swirling in my dazed mind. 5
The Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks sustained extensive damage to factories and severe injuries among employees. Casualties among employees at work on the day of the atomic bombing accounted for as much as 69% of the work force, excepting those slightly injured.
Details regarding casualties among the employees are provided in the Gonjōgaki (a report by Kubota Yutaka, revised at the end of August). 6 The data in these documents differ slightly. Since it would be confusing if three sets of data were introduced here simultaneously, the data from the History of the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks, which had been adopted as the basic data for the follow-up investigation, are introduced alone below.
Casualties among employees of Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks
|Total employees before the atomic bombing||Injured employees||Note|
|Dead||Injured||Total||Number of employees at work on August 9
●Office workers: 421 (including technical and clerical workers)
●Factory workers: 1,300
●Total: 1,721 (Casualties among these workers accounted for approx. 68% of total)
The total number of employees (5,307) given above includes those who had been conscripted into the military (1,967). The employees at work on the day of the atomic bombing seemed to account for 50% of those remaining. Since Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks had been under a 36-hour/week program since June of that year, the remaining employees were probably off duty that day.
The total number of employees at work on August 9 (1,721) does not include 320 mobilized students, who were on duty that day. If those students are included, the casualties among people at work on August 9 increase to 69% of the total.
Follow-up surveys were conducted on the damages inflicted by the atomic bombing, revealing the life and death situation of those seriously injured or missing. The fatalities totaled 1,406, including sub-manager Nishimatsu Yasuhiko. The breakdown is shown below.
Office workers: 189, Factory workers: 728
Factory workers in training: 118; those newly mobilized for labor service: 122
Workers from the Women’s Volunteer Labor Units: 26, Mobilized students: 223 (this number includes teachers), Total: 1,406
In addition, over 200 marine unit personnel were engaged in production operations together with employees. Marine unit casualties are unknown, due to a lack of data. However, since descriptions of the devastation at the factory and mention of mortally injured marine unit members appear in the aforementioned documents and other records, it is reasonable to assume that a considerable number of casualties occurred among the members of those units.
3) Mitsubishi Electric Co. Nagasaki Works
The damage to buildings and injuries to workers of the Mitsubishi Electric Company Nagasaki Works in the hypocenter area were as follows:
Foundry (approx. 0.5 kilometers south of the hypocenter, Iwakawa-machi), completely destroyed and completely burned.
The foundry had an area of about 2,000 tsubo (6610 m²) and 100 workers. The foundry had partially collapsed in the conventional air raid on August 1, and several employees (nine workers, including those at the sheet metal plant in Inasa-machi) were killed. In total, 80 workers at the foundry perished along with the building as a result of the atomic bombing.
Sheet metal plant (Inasa-machi 3-chōme, approx. 2.2 kilometers south of the hypocenter), completely destroyed and completely burned.
The sheet metal plant had an area of about 700 tsubo (2,313.5 m²) and 80 workers. Several employees had died in the air raid on August 1, and many others were killed or injured along with the total destruction of the building as a result of the atomic bombing.
Blueprinting factory (approx. 0.1 kilometers west of the hypocenter, Matsuyama-machi), completely destroyed and completely burned.
Situated adjacent to the hypocenter area, the blueprinting factory bordered on the prefectural highway (present-day Route 206). The facility had been established only one week before the atomic bombing by renovating a private storehouse as a temporary workplace for employees from the factory at the Nagasaki School of Economics (Katafuchi-machi 3-chōme). The building was completely destroyed, and about eight employees at work on the day of the atomic bombing perished.
Chinzei Gakuin school factory (approx. 0.5 kilometers southwest of the hypocenter, Takenokubo-machi), completely destroyed.
The lecture hall, used as a temporary machine shop, accommodated approximately 10 workers and 150 mobilized students. Chinzei Gakuin, which will be touched upon in the subchapter “Schools,” sustained extensive damage due to its geographical setting on a hill near the hypocenter area. The workers employed there were almost all killed, and many of the mobilized students were killed or injured.
Fuchi Elementary School factory (approx. 1.2 kilometers south-southwest of the hypocenter, Takenokubo-machi), completely destroyed and completely burned.
Sixteen of the classrooms at this school were being used as a temporary winding factory, woodworking shop and coil factory, accommodating a total of approximately 60 workers and mobilized students, many of whom were killed or injured as at Chinzei Gakuin. From August 10, the facility was scheduled to receive pupils from the higher grades of the elementary school to work as mobilized laborers.
Shiroyama Dormitory and Shiroyama-machi Training Institute (approx. 0.5 kilometers west-southwest of the hypocenter, Shiroyama-machi 1-chōme), completely destroyed.
Shiroyama Dormitory, a two-story wooden men’s dormitory with an area of approx. 8,500 tsubo (28,092.5 m²) accommodated some 533 people. This facility, like the above-mentioned school, was located on a hill and completely destroyed. The training institute was in the Shiroyama Dormitory’s north wing, where training for young factory workers and emergency training for factory workers were provided on a regular basis. About 40% of some 150 workers in training and teachers were killed that day.
With regard to the main factory in Hiradogoya-machi, located about three kilometers south of the hypocenter, wooden buildings were partially destroyed, windowpanes were all smashed, and a few workers were seriously or slightly injured, but no one was killed. Tsūtenkaku and Kairakuen, former restaurants near Daitokuji Temple (Nishikoshima-machi), were in use as mens’ dormitories similar to Shiroyama Dormitory, and were located at a point about four kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter. Both buildings collapsed as a result of the blast.
With regard to casualties, the “Damage Report on the Atomic Bombing” submitted to the Nagasaki City Defense Section was the first general report on deaths and injuries. According to this report, the casualties among workers were as follows:
|Dead||Seriously injured||Slightly injured|
However, the fatalities increased rapidly after that. The list of atomic bomb victims among company employees gave 469 fatalities, but four (?) names were added, bringing the total of confirmed dead to 471. This number includes 80 workers at the foundry, 61 engineers in the first engineering section, 38 engineers in the second engineering section, nine workers in the engineering technology section, 31 workers in other sections, 16 workers in dormitories, 53 factory trainees, four members of women’s volunteer labor units, and 179 students from mobilized student cooperation units.
The total number of employees at the Mitsubishi Electric Co. Nagasaki Works was 5,258, including 3,832 workers on labor service (this number includes workers conscripted into the military), and 1,426 mobilized students. According to records compiled in April 1945, the number of workers, aside from those related to the military and mobilized students, totaled 2,985, including 600 office workers and 2,385 factory workers.
The damage to equipment was relatively minor; according to the above report, the damaged machines included 33 metal cutting and polishing machines (7% of the total) and four woodworking machines (21% of the total).
The last installment in this section is the memoir of Sonoda Eijū entitled “The Day the Atomic Bomb Exploded.” This document sheds a valuable light on the situation in the temporary factories. According to Sonoda, three factories- the coil factory, woodworking shop and winding factory- of the Mitsubishi Electric Co. Nagasaki Works that had been transferred to Fuchi Elementary School were scheduled to move to loquat warehouses in Mogi and Kitaura in accordance with the second evacuation order. August 9, the day of the atomic bombing, was the day of transfer for the winding factory (total workers: 23). Sonoda Eijū was in charge of the second evacuation and planned to transfer 16 members of the Nagasaki Prefectural High School women’s cooperation unit to the warehouses using two trucks, carrying eight members at a time. This plan decided the fate of the 16 young women. Remembers Sonoda:
After the air-raid alarm was lifted, I drove a chartered two-ton truck (charcoal truck) to Mogi with eight mobilized female students from Nagasaki Prefectural High School. After dropping them off at the Beach Hotel, the women’s lodging place in Mogi, I headed back to Nagasaki. I was loading 72-liter barrels of umeboshi (pickled plums) at a food warehouse in Hamano-machi when the atomic bomb exploded. I did not see the flash, but the blast wind, accompanied by a tremendous sound and a gust of red gas, almost knocked me off the truck. The local residents shouted at me, saying ‘My house was bombed because you parked the truck here!’ Everyone assumed that a conventional bomb had exploded right over his or her house.
Having no idea where the bomb had exploded, I immediately returned to Mogi. However, Mr. Yoneno’s truck, scheduled to carry the remaining eight members of the women’s cooperation unit, had yet to arrive there. Worrying about them, I tried to call my company office, but the telephone service was out. I departed for Nagasaki again, but the road had become impassable from the point in front of Yasaka Shintō Shrine. I left the truck there and walked to Ōhato Port, only to find that ship service had also been suspended. As I walked from Nagasaki Railroad Station to Yachiyo-machi I saw many injured people and began to understand the catastrophe that had occurred.
Crossing Inasa Bridge, I finally reached my company office and saw people hectically rescuing and treating other people as on a battlefield. Some of the rescuers were treating injured people one after another and carrying them into an air-raid shelter; others were trudging back and forth to the hypocenter area to pick up the wounded. Mr. Yoneno, who had safely stayed behind, informed me that the temporary factory at Fuchi Elementary School had been completely destroyed. He had been waiting for the truck, which had been delayed until 10:30 a.m., and the atomic bomb had exploded just as he left the gate after loading the truck. He had no idea what had become of the remaining eight members of the women’s cooperation unit. (It was later revealed that four of the eight had been killed instantly).
The next day, we left Mogi for our company on foot. It was almost noon when we arrived there. At the company office, the injured were being transferred to an air-raid shelter. Most people except liaisons were out unearthing bodies and clearing the rubble of destroyed houses.
I heard that some people had also been dispatched to Fuchi Elementary School and so decided to go there after receiving an emergency ration of two rice balls. I finally arrived there after taking a detour around Mt. Inasa and saw that the three-story reinforced concrete building had been crushed, leaving only hulks of pillars and floors. The L-shaped two-story wooden building, built on the raised ground near the schoolyard, had collapsed and the debris was burning. Our coil factory had been moved temporarily to two of the classrooms in this wooden building.
I helped people working there to cremate bodies on the spot. The number of bodies must have exceeded 20. There was a girl from the women’s cooperation unit, who had miraculously survived even after being thrown across the schoolyard into the underbrush by the blast wind. She had been found that morning lying in the air-raid shelter located on the other side of the hill. She looked fine after receiving treatment. (However, she died three years later after returning to her hometown in the Gotō Islands.) 7
4) Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard
The buildings of the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard were categorized into three damage levels: “completely destroyed,” “completely destroyed and completely burned” and “completely burned.” These include the following factories and facilities:
Ship Type Test Station (1.7 kilometers north-northeast of the hypocenter, Yonogō)
Takenokubo sawmill (1.7 kilometers south of the hypocenter, Takenokubo-machi)
Saiwaimachi factory (1.7 kilometers south of the hypocenter, Saiwai-machi 1-chōme)
Ōhashi components factory (1.1 kilometers north of the hypocenter, Ōhashi-machi)
Hamaguchi-machi Mitsubishi Nagasaki Technical School for Youths factory—“Ha” Factory (0.7 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter, Hamaguchi-machi)
Fuchi Elementary School factory—“Fu” Factory (1.2 kilometers south-southwest of the hypocenter, Takenokubo-machi)
Nagasaki Prefectural School for the Blind and Nagasaki Prefectural School for the Deaf factory—“Mo” Factory (0.6 kilometers northeast of the hypocenter, Ueno-machi)
Mitsubishi Hospital Urakami Branch (1.3 kilometers south of the hypocenter, Mori-machi)
Urakami company warehouse (0.7 kilometers north of the hypocenter, Ōhashi-machi)
Komaba Dormitory (0.2 kilometers northwest of the hypocenter, Komaba-machi 2-chōme)
Seimei Dormitory (1.1 kilometers west of the hypocenter, Shiroyama-machi 1-chōme)
Other facilities in the vicinity of Urakami:
Mitsubishi Hospital Funatsu-machi Branch (2.8 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter, Funatsu-machi)
Funatsu-machi company warehouse (2.8 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter, Funatsu-machi)
Other facilities located in the main compound of the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard in Akunoura, Mukaishima, and Tategami sustained extensive damage to their roofs and windows.
The damage to machinery is outlined below.
|Machine type||Total number of machines||Number of damaged machines (unusable)|
|Metal printing & polishing machines||1,743||270|
Although the factories in the hypocenter area were not directly related to shipbuilding or machine building, all operations of the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard had to be suspended due to the indirect but devastating impact of the atomic bomb on the machine parts production factory, oxygen production factory and sawmill, as well as the difficulty of dispatching workers from other relatively slightly damaged factories for rescue operations and emergency restoration work on the destroyed facilities. The war ended during these rescue operations and emergency
8 The situation at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard was similar to that at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory, Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks, Mitsubishi Electric Works and other companies, a fact that reflects the extent of the damages inflicted upon the city of Nagasaki.
The damage to the above-mentioned factories is described below.
Ship Type Test Station
The long narrow building of the Ship Type Test Station (300 m in length and 13 m in width) was crushed out of shape by the blast and its roof blown off. The outer walls of the adjacent reinforced concrete office building were intact, but the windows had been smashed and the interior was strewn with glass shards, fallen partitions and scattered documents and drawings.
Matsumoto Shigeharu, who was in the station at the time of the atomic bomb explosion, left the following memoir:
Remembering that I had left my clothing and other belongings behind, I returned to the factory from the forest where I had been taking shelter. I met the engineer Murata Eisaku in the vicinity of the office. Under the leadership of Mr. Murata, we created two rescue teams with the slightly injured and attempted to rescue two seriously injured persons, namely Hiraki Masae and Kumamoto Hajime. The latter could not walk due to a leg injury. My team carried Ms. Hiraki from the back of the semi-basement to the entrance.
Mr. Kumamoto was then moved outside on a stretcher. In the course of the rescue operation, we found the badly wounded Kawakatsu Toyokichi, who had been blown into the basement containing wave-making equipment by the blast. In addition, we received word that Kakiuchi Kameharu had been found in a wide gutter near Ide’s house. He had escaped from the Ship Type Test Station unaided while suffering a head injury but had apparently collapsed in the gutter. I joined Masaki Chiaki and Katsurahara Saburō in attending to Mr. Kakiuchi and Mr. Kumamoto.
Kakiuchi craved water, so we went to fetch some from a nearby well. On our way back, many burned children were begging us to give them water. We complied, and the pitcher quickly became empty. It was only after the third trip that we could finally let Kakiuchi take a drink.
Kakiuchi’s head injury was serious. Mr. Katsurahara, using a cane, left for Kakiuchi’s house in Umeyashiki, taking a circuitous route through Nishiyama, to inform his family of his condition. A truck from the Ōmura Air Corps arrived just as Mr. Masaki and I were at the second gate of the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory, planning to carry Kumamoto on a stretcher to a relief train. We left him to the crew on the truck, and they took him to Ōmura Naval Hospital.
Murashima Hideo, who was in charge of general affairs at the test station, remembers as follows:
Of 35 workers at the Ship Type Test Station, only five were uninjured; 26 of the remaining workers were injured and four were killed by the atomic bomb. The four deaths included three factory workers in training who had gone to fetch their lunch boxes and a female clerical assistant who was working in the office. They were injured and died later in the drawing storage room.
Ōhashi components factory and “Mo” Factory
The Ōhashi components factory was surrounded by a high wall and stood adjacent to the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory Ōhashi Plant to the south. Since the components factory was a wooden building, fire spread rapidly and killed almost all of the workers on duty at the time of the atomic bombing. Worker fatalities, including those instantly killed and those who died later, amounted to nine, including the foreman, Kondō Masao.
More than 10 office workers and approximately 500 factory workers (including women’s volunteer labor units and mobilized students) had been working there until July. However, most of the office workers and mobilized students from four schools (Nagasaki Prefectural Junior High School, Nagasaki City Women’s High School, Nagasaki Prefectural Keihō Middle School and Nagasaki Teachers College) escaped the atomic bombing because they had been evacuated to a factory established temporarily in the Tomachi Tunnel (5.5 km from the hypocenter).
“Mo” Factory, which had been evacuated from the components factory to the temporary factory at the Nagasaki Prefectural School for the Blind and Nagasaki Prefectural School for the Deaf in Ueno-machi several months earlier, sustained damage as severe as that at the main factory, even though the two-story building was made of concrete.
Mori Takeshi, a worker at the Saiwaimachi factory, remembers as follows:
“Mo” Factory stood alone, a charred mass of concrete surrounded by a field of scorched ground. Upon entering the machine shop on the first floor, I saw black machine tools looming like devils. Dead bodies were strewn among the machines in heaps like dominoes. There was no space to step among the corpses, some half burned and some turned into charred skeletons. The second floor looked the same. It must have been a blink-of-an-eye occurrence while everyone was at work. I recall that the scene was so horrible that I had to cover my eyes, so I cannot remember the details. What is etched in my mind is that, likely because there had been a loft in the roof-space, part of the ceiling was missing, revealing a blue sky, beneath which lay piles of charred bodies. This horrible scene made me realize that I was standing in the center of destruction. What type of bomb could have caused this carnage? The announcement from the military was unclear, only stating that a ‘new-type bomb’ had been used. However, I was surprised by how extensive the damaged area was and by the fact that no residue of the bomb itself could be seen. No other person visited factory No. 45 that day. Since being alone here made the two of us uneasy, we hurried away from the factory around 2:00 p.m. and returned to Saiwaimachi factory for briefing.
With regard to office workers at “Mo” Factory, six workers including Satō Takeo were killed instantly, and a few women volunteers as well as technical and clerical workers were killed or injured.
With regard to factory workers, there was a total of 265 fatalities in the components factory and factory No. 45, only about 10% of the work force surviving. Other than that, 23 of the 40 students mobilized from Jōsei Women’s School and 34 of the 44 students from Junshin Women’s Vocational School were killed.
However, the fatalities mentioned above represent only tentative figures. In the case of Junshin Women’s High School, of those at work in the above-mentioned two factories on the day of the atomic bombing, a total of 136 persons died: 36 persons who were instantly killed plus two teachers and 98 mobilized students who were seriously or slightly injured died later either at home or at Togitsu Elementary School or other accommodations for the injured in the vicinity of Isahaya. 9
Mitsubishi Nagasaki Technical School for Youths “Ha” Factory
The Mitsubishi Nagasaki Technical School for Youths “Ha” Factory was located near the hypocenter. The four wooden two-story factory buildings collapsed and burned to ashes, and about 350 workers including the foreman, Tamaki Junsuke, perished.
Nakamura Kōichi, who arrived at “Ha” Factory from the shipyard as a member of a rescue party on the day after the atomic bombing, described the situation as follows:
When I arrived at “Ha” Factory, I was stunned by the disastrous scene. All of the buildings had burned to the ground. Approximately 200 metal machine tools loomed miserably in the rubble like martyrs’ gravestones, and among them were heaps of bodies that were so charred that it was impossible to distinguish men from women. Some of the bodies had been reduced to ashes as though deliberately cremated, probably by ignition of the large amounts of machine oil in the factory.
There had been about 200 machine tools in the factory. The small and easy-to-use machine tools were handled by Ōshima Women’s Volunteer Labor Units from Kagoshima Prefecture and mobilized students from Nagasaki City Women’s High School. Full-time factory workers handled the ordinary tools along with persons mobilized for labor service at factories and mobilized students from Tōryō Middle School, working in shifts night and day.
Search and rescue missions for “Ha” Factory workers were dispatched to the interior and exterior of the factory and the surrounding area, but, aside from members of women’s volunteer labor units, there were many missing persons among factory workers and mobilized students. The number of missing persons was particularly great among members of mobilized student cooperation units.
The following is a breakdown of fatalities due to the atomic bombing among workers from “Ha” Factory.
Office workers: 13
Factory workers: 236 Total: 249
Inside the factory: 112
At home or in accommodations for the injured: 89
Kagoshima Prefecture Ōshima Women’s Volunteer Labor Units: 35
Inside the factory: 15
Komaba Dormitory: 16
In accommodations for the injured: 4
Nagasaki City Women’s High School’s Mobilized Student Cooperation Units —
teachers: 3, mobilized students: 30, Total: 33
Inside the factory: 2
In accommodations for the injured: 1
Tōryō Middle School’s Mobilized Student Cooperation Units—
Mobilized students: 21
Inside the factory: 3, Missing: 17, At home: 1
The Takenokubo sawmill sustained heavy damage to its large stock of lumber. Immediately after the atomic bomb explosion, the first fire broke out from the planing machine area. This was extinguished by a bucket brigade. Nakagawa Kameo, a former worker in the sawmill, described the events as follows in his memoir:
I arrived at the north side of the factory after making an inspection tour and found railroad ties on the tracks that had burst into flames, with smoke billowing up. After extinguishing the fire with the help of the group leader, Mr. Kido, I returned to the office where I saw that a fire had broken out in a lumber warehouse on the bank of Inasa River. We put the fire out using water from a hose connected to a hydrant located at the center of the factory premises. However, another warehouse on the riverbank beyond the dock started to burn as well. While we were trying clumsily to handle the heavy hose, re-reeling and pulling it out, fire broke out in several other places and spread beyond control. After consultation with the foreman, Araki Ryūichi, we evacuated everyone.
I watched the factory buildings burn from a place on the hillside, thinking that the fire, fed by all the lumber inside, was so severe that it might scorch the sky. The scene of the flames burning like a furnace inside the factory and melting the steel framework out of shape is impossible to describe.
At the time of the atomic bombing, a total of 240–250 people were working at the sawmill, including about 100 full-time workers, 40-50 factory workers on labor service (including a few mobilized students) and about 100 workers from subcontracting companies. None of the officer workers died as a result of the atomic bombing, but 14 or 15 factory workers and 10 subcontracted workers were killed.
Seimei Dormitory, a company dormitory for men, was established in the former building of St. Mary’s School at Shiroyama-machi 1-chōme. The bracket-shaped three-story wooden building retained the appearance of a school. The exact number of casualties remains unknown due to a lack of data.
However, among 11 members of a design team who happened to transfer there from the shipyard that morning, seven were killed and four only narrowly survived (including one seriously injured). This design team was working on a jet plane capable of vertical ascent, called Kikka, developed to intercept B-29 bombers. The team members were exposed to the atomic bomb explosion while opening the drawings for the new jet plane, after finishing the arrangement of desks in the corner of the spacious hall.
The buildings of the Saiwaimachi Factory were situated in a line from north to south as follows: the foundry, machine shop, and sheet metal factory (cannery). Another building on the site of a former cotton mill adjacent to the Kyūshū Railroad Nagasaki Main Line was serving as headquarters for the Nagasaki Shipbuilding National Defense Unit, which was composed of prison convicts and prisoners-of-war from Fukuoka Prisoner-of-war Camp Branch No.14. Moreover, a two-story wooden building was being used as a general office.
The number of workers at Saiwaimachi Factory peaked at about 2,500 but, as a result of conscription, mobilization and factory dispersion, is said to have gradually decreased to between 600 and 700 workers in the machine shop, 300 and 400 in the foundry, 200 and 250 in the sheet metal factory, and 150 and 200 at other posts including the general office. These numbers included mobilized students, convicts and prisoners-of-war. But they are rough estimates, and both the number of people at work on the day of the atomic bombing and the casualties remain unclear. Many mobilized students were absent because an air-raid alarm had been in effect since morning. The students on labor duty at the factory were mobilized from Nagasaki Prefectural Middle School, Nagasaki Prefectural Technical School, Nagasaki Commercial School, Nagasaki City Women’s High School and Tōryō Middle School.
The train suddenly stopped in front of the main gate of Saiwaimachi Factory where thousands of workers were pushing each other out of the way to get from the factory premises through the main gate and into the tunnel-type air-raid shelter in a hill nearby. No one retained normal appearance. Some were badly injured; others were bleeding and running around screaming and falling down. The scene was hell on earth, a picture of the flood that destroyed the world at the time of Noah’s Ark. 10
Needless to say, the author is describing the scene at Saiwaimachi Factory after the atomic bomb explosion. Rescue operations for the injured were conducted and bodies recovered in the very short interval between the collapse of buildings at the factory as a result of the explosion and the breaking out of fires in the debris. A few other examples are presented below. The atomic bomb exploded while sheet metal factory foreman, Fujii Sōichi, was organizing information for a meeting on torpedo launching tubes scheduled at the shipyard.
When I came to my senses I found myself in darkness, not knowing how long I had been unconscious. I had no idea what had happened. I suddenly heard voices and called for help in a loud voice. My subordinates rescued me, helping me out from under fallen lumber. I was later informed that when I was rescued, fires were spreading quickly through the debris from the side of the prisoner-of-war camp and had already reached halfway to the point where I was trapped. It was terrifying to realize that I would have been burned alive if the rescue party had come any later. 11
A woman who worked in the payroll section on the first floor of the general office was found with her left hand pinned under a fallen beam. Since there were not enough people to move the huge beam, and the flames were approaching quickly, she was rescued by having her left hand amputated at the wrist with a saw. She was admitted to Mitsubishi Hospital with the stump of her wrist firmly tied with an electric wire to stop the bleeding, but she died
two weeks later.
Kinoshita Tatsuo, who experienced the atomic bombing at the shipyard and fled back desperately to the Saiwaimachi Factory thinking that if he had to die it may as well be in his workplace, describes the situation of the general office and machine shop as follows:
As for the general office, the first floor was crushed, and the entire second floor had collapsed on top of that. Of course the roof tiles had all been blown off. The machine shop, which was a relatively new building, stood solemnly in the ruins with its roof and windowpanes all broken, revealing the blue sky. The accessory buildings, such as the substation and stand-by rooms, were all destroyed. I heard a few people calling for help from the office. On one of the fallen beams of the second floor, assistant engineer, Mr. Shigetomi, whose desk had been next to mine, was dead with his eyes staring up, somehow having climbed up from the floor. Seeing no one alive, I felt a sudden piercing trepidation.
Soon after that, I went to the air-raid shelters under Shōtokuji Temple and then returned to Saiwaimachi Factory with more than ten rescue workers who helped me bring down my colleagues’ bodies from the broken roof. We also rushed to the place where I had heard female workers calling for help. Unfortunately, they had already died. It was during this mission that we had to amputate the hand of a worker from the payroll section in order to rescue her from the debris. By the time we rescued her, the debris at the back of the room was already in flames.
I realized that both the first section chief, Mr. Abe, who had suffered a serious burn on the right side of his face, and his subordinate, Mr. Nakanishi, who was limping along with his entire body injured, had assumed leadership in an attempt to prevent the office from burning down. Witnessing their strong sense of responsibility as executive employees, I felt a lump in my throat. We started fire-fighting efforts with 14 or 15 workers from the assembly section and continued with 30 people in total, including workers from the machine section, only to see the office burn completely to ashes.
I had seen no sign of fire among the surrounding private houses when I had returned to Saiwaimachi Factory several hours earlier (around 11:30). But now they were all ablaze. The prisoner-of-war camp was burning, as was the sheet metal factory adjacent to the machine shop.
The flames were enveloping the area from three directions. The only way out was the route along Urakami River, but the heat from the fire at the sawmill across the river was intense. I returned to the spot on the riverbank where I had left Mr. Shigetomi’s body. 13
The highest number of casualties occurred among the workers in the machine shop at the Saiwaimachi Factory. It is estimated that around 350 people were seriously or slightly injured and 40 to 50 killed. Of those killed, ten died instantly or were burned alive under the debris of the destroyed buildings; the rest died soon after being rescued or scrambling out from under the debris themselves.
At Saiwaimachi Factory, the foreman, Kondō Akira, was missing after leaving for “Ha” Factory.
The foundry was the second largest building after the machine shop, but the number of fatalities here was low because of the unique evacuation measures taken by the assistant foreman, Kinoshita Hideo.
At the time of the air-raid alarm that morning, the assistant foreman had evacuated ordinary workers to a grove in the vicinity of a crematory. The electric furnace in the foundry had been active and under operation since 4:00 a.m. and was kept active even during the air-raid alarm by approximately 20 workers, including sub-section chief, Koga Kōki. The preparations for casting had been completed at around 9:40 a.m. The air-raid alarm was soon reduced to an alert. The workers in the shelter were then recalled for the water-pouring process and completion of the operation. As the state of alert remained unchanged, the workers went back to the shelter.
The following is an excerpt from the memoir of the assistant foreman, Kinoshita Hideo.
After completing the operation, those other than members of the civilian defense corps, led by sub-section chief, Mr. Koga, again took shelter. I was left in charge of a group of 25 people and led them out of the foundry. I was at the end of the line with a saber in my hand, pushing my bicycle. When we began going up the slope beside the isolation hospital (Nagasaki City Hospital), somebody in the line cried, ‘parachute!’ The others in line huddled at the side of a cliff. I heard a bomber engine and looked to the sky in the direction of Urakami, but I could not see anything. Taking a few more steps and paying no further attention to the sound, I suddenly experienced an intense yellowish white light like a magnesium flash, and I was hurled onto the road. I cannot recall the sound of an explosion or even the blast. Tumbling down, I thought that I was dying, but the memory may have been distorted later. I no longer remember what I was actually thinking at the moment.
The fact is that I probably went unconscious. When I regained consciousness I was lying on the road on my stomach feeling very hot. The right side of my jacket and trousers were burning! My upper arms, which had been exposed as a result of my rolled-up sleeves, were both burned and swollen with blisters. The area was filled with smoke; no other people were around. I hastily rolled on the ground to put out the fire on my clothing and stepped into the gutter at the roadside. After waiting for a while to get my bearings, I stood up, noting how quiet it was there. Not imagining how extensive the damage actually was, I went to the isolation hospital down the hill for treatment. However, the hospital had already started burning and no one was to be seen, so I gave up the idea of receiving treatment. I was worried about the shelter and decided to go there. I found my bicycle at the bottom of the cliff, but not my saber. Up until this point, I was assuming that the enemy airplane had targeted my group and dropped a conventional bomb over our heads.
It was impossible to know what was really going on, because the area was permeated with smoke. As we headed for the shelter, I gradually came to understand the gravity of the situation. On our way we came across Mr. Abe and Mr. Todaka, who had sustained serious injuries. Abe was nursing Todaka and was in better condition than the latter. We tried to carry Todaka, who had suffered severe burns all over the upper half of his body, but he complained of pain when the affected region was touched, and the trees that had toppled over the road hindered our progress. I entered the shelter alone to check inside, leaving the party beside the path at the entrance.
While trees of various sizes around the shelter had fallen and their leaves burned, most of the people inside seemed to have escaped injury. I asked these uninjured people to pick up Todaka and some of the injured people we had found in the shelter. I also asked someone to check on the area in the direction of Urakami. That person came back and reported that very few private houses remained in the area from Inasa Bridge to Urakami and that the roof of the general office building at Saiwaimachi Factory had been blown off and the adjacent wooden buildings flattened. All that remained, he said, was the remnants of the foundry, machine shop and other facilities.
This report helped me to understand the situation for the first time. The people in the shelter told me that they had heard a huge explosion after the flash of light. I concluded that a bomb similar to the one used on Hiroshima had been dropped over Nagasaki.
As for my party, there were five people including Todaka who were seriously injured, and all of them had been with me at the time of the explosion. There were also several missing persons, but I assumed that they had taken shelter elsewhere, since we had not found them on our way here. Foremost on my mind, and the source of great worry, was the problem of how to provide treatment for the injured. But I had no means of contacting the foundry, nor had I received any word from my workplace. I asked Mr. Iwaoka and Mr. Miyazaki to fetch medicine from the isolation hospital, and tried to give first-aid treatment to the injured. According to Iwaoka and Miyazaki, fires had consumed the hospital, and the ruins were deserted.
I dispatched five able-bodied young men to the foundry, thinking it safe because there had been no air raid since the bombing. I was later informed that these young men had had to swim across Urakami River because the roads were impassable. They informed me that there had been no fatalities but that some members of the civilian defense corps led by the foundry engineer, Mr. Koga, had suffered injuries. The roof of the foundry had been completely blown off, but the machinery and other facilities had sustained surprisingly little damage. The wooden building nearby had collapsed but was yet to catch fire.
I made a status report to Mr. Kikai, who had come all the way over the mountains to the foundry from Akunoura, and I requested that he come pick up the injured.
I received more information as time went by and realized that private houses in the area from Urakami Railroad Station to Ōhashi had all been destroyed. Around this time, injured civilians began heading for Inasa in great numbers, seeking shelter. That scene was completely chaotic, with many people burned and women with disheveled hair.
Uninjured people went to clear up the foundry, leaving the injured, women, and a few men to serve as liaisons in the shelter.
Around 4:00 p.m., when sunset was drawing near, we finally decided that the injured should be transferred to schools and other facilities, because the Nagasaki Medical College Hospital and Mitsubishi Hospital Urakami Branch had been destroyed and could not accommodate any patients. After gathering further information about possible destinations the next day, I decided to transfer the injured along with a few people to attend to them. Then I dismissed the women.
I returned to the Saiwaimachi Factory via the Mitsubishi Steelworks. At the factory, I was relieved to see the engineer, Mr. Koga. He had suffered an injury but seemed well. With regard to the Saiwaimachi Factory, since Mr. Kondo, the group leader, was missing, the situation was out of control with little progress being made in recovering bodies and rescuing the injured. The construction office, prisoner-of-war camp and cannery had burned to the ground. The only thing visible in the area was the ruins of various facilities. In addition, the number of casualties seemed to be very great. Then I received word that the engineer, Mr. Tsubouchi, had apparently been killed, since no one had heard from him after he returned to his dormitory for lunch, and the dormitory had been destroyed.
As for the second foundry, I was relieved to learn that the destruction there had been light compared to the other factories, with only a few persons killed or missing and about 20 people injured, including those who had made their way to a shelter. The death toll at the second foundry was later determined to be 10 people.
In conclusion, although the fatalities at the Saiwaimachi Factory remained unclear, as mentioned above, an estimated 100 to 150 people perished and approximately 90 bodies were cremated on the spot.
Regarding other facilities related to the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard, 67 persons died at Komaba Dormitory, but the number of fatalities at “Ha” Dormitory remains unknown. Of the instructors who left the shipyard woodworking shop that day to conduct repairs at “Ha” Dormitory, 26 perished. Moreover, many of the workers dispatched from the machine building inspection section and the engineering technology section to the Saiwaimachi Factory, Components Factory, “Ha” Factory or “Mo” Factory, perished in the atomic bombing. If the workers who were absent or off duty and died at home are added, the total number of fatalities increases significantly.
The number of confirmed casualties at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard increased as time passed following the first report at the division managers meeting after the atomic bombing. The changes in number of confirmed casualties can be summarized as follows:
Division managers meeting on August 17: 518 fatalities
Division managers meeting on September 1: 1,454 in total (as of August 26), including 661 fatalities, 297 seriously injured and 496 missing.
A later report (year, month and date unknown) contains the following information: “The fatalities were reported as 1,579 in total, with 213 office workers, 830 factory workers, 478 mobilized students, 21 school teachers and 37 contractors killed. The report indicated that there were many fatalities among factory workers on labor service and other persons, but the actual number was unknown.”
Of the victims in the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard’s list of victims compiled on June 13, 1951, fatalities from the atomic bombing totaled 1,815, which is currently regarded as the final number. 14
5) Nagasaki Shipbuilding National Defense Corps
The headquarters of the Nagasaki Shipbuilding National Defense Corps, which was composed of convicts from Nagasaki Prison, was located in the former cotton mill at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard Saiwaimachi Factory. The number of workers in this corps reached 540, with approximately 200 engaging in foundry operations and assembly operations at the Saiwaimachi Factory as well as some 300 workers at the Ōtao Factory.
In the case of the Saiwaimachi Factory, the number of corps members had apparently decreased slightly by the time of the atomic bombing. However, casualties amounted to about 80. The situation is described as follows in a document on wartime prisons:
All facilities of the Saiwaimachi Factory, including the headquarters of the Nagasaki Shipbuilding National Defense Corps, were instantly destroyed by the atomic bomb that exploded over Nagasaki on August 9, 1945, and the ruins were soon enveloped in a huge conflagration. The resulting situation was chaotic, with 24 corps members instantly killed, five office workers and 19 corps members seriously injured (a seriously injured warden died on the 28th of the same month), and 28 corps members missing. The seriously injured office workers included the corps leader, Mr. Kanzaki, who was transferred to Nagasaki Prison on August 10, the day after the atomic bombing, because he was no longer fit to lead the corps. None of the corps members who had been dispatched to the Tategami Factory were killed because they had been transferred earlier to the Fukahori Shipbuilding National Defense Corps. 15
6) Prisoner-of-War Camp
All of the prisoner-of-war camps in the Kyūshū district were called the “Fukuoka Prisoner-of-War Camp” because the camp headquarters were located in the Western Force District Headquarters in the city of Fukuoka, Fukuoka Prefecture. The Fukuoka No.14 Prisoner-of-War Camp was located in a corner of the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard Saiwaimachi Factory in Saiwai-machi, Nagasaki (Fukutomi-machi 3 chōme), 1.7 km south of the hypocenter. The buildings were completely destroyed by the atomic bomb and the debris burned to ashes, many prisoners-of-war being killed or injured.
R.E. Bryer, a British prisoner-of-war confined in the Fukuoka No.14 Prisoner-of-War Camp at the Saiwaimachi Factory, describes his experience of the Nagasaki atomic bombing as follows:
I was already in the [air-raid] shelter, there was no better place, and I moved timbers away from the entry hole in case access be required in a hurry… It was uncomfortable crouched on my haunches and I moved back inside again and out of sight in order to stretch my legs. As I did so, a brilliant violet blue flash of almost liquid intensity, tore across the entrance hole to the shelter. Not the momentary flicker of lightning, but a lasting thing, blinding my eyes with its brilliance… The concrete box in which I lay moved violently as if shaken by a giant hand. Cracks in the side walls opened wide with the vibrations and dribbled earth as I flattened to the floor… Loose rubble rained through to surround my head as I struggled to free my arms and gasped for air. A blackness came, and I sank into it quite peacefully.
My senses returned in the blackness. And the silence… I wiggled and squirmed as I fought my way to the opening… My limbs were sound. I tried them one by one. And my brain was clear, although blood crawled down my face from a small scalp wound. But it could not accept what my eyes could see had happened. The time was shortly before noon on a brilliant sunny day. There were no clouds. I remembered this. And many things I saw around said that I had not been trapped for very long. Now the whole area lay enveloped in a curious half light. Swirls of black smoke drifted in all directions and spiralled through the air. Very slowly it began to rise and disperse. And through a lighter haze I looked again with increasing disbelief at what I saw.
All around me moved members of the prison camp in a sea of rubble and burning woodwork. Prisoners and guards. Most were injured. One man near me dangled a broken arm with apparent unconcern. Many stood with clothing on fire and did nothing, locked into a kind of mental paralysis. Some were blinded and saw nothing. Others moved aimlessly among the debris with the same vacant look I saw on all their faces. Normal faculties no doubt numbed like my own, unable to accept the enormity of this sudden and complete devastation with which we lay surrounded.
The fabric of the huge Mitsubishi engineering factories close next door to us had disappeared. And each covered an acre of ground or more. In their place now stood only vast steel skeletons of bent and twisted framework, all pushed to the same crazy angle to the ground…
I took off without a second thought among a crowd of prisoners and guards, all expecting a repetition of the disaster at any moment. Any other place seemed preferable to the one we occupied among the growing fires.
We scrambled over what had been civilian dwelling houses and workplaces moments before. The more able bodied helped the injured through the jumble of flattened buildings, fires and tangled wires, from which came constant cries from those entrapped and unable to move…
We stopped running, slowed by the effort of it, and a gradual return to sanity. We gathered together in the first open place as we left the little houses behind, and shamefacedly looked down on an incredible scene of mass destruction… As far as my eyes could see the destruction was complete. Everything identifiable in the town and its thoroughfares was gone, reduced in seconds to an endless tangled carpet of spiky timbers, wires and builders rubble. Every tree burned on the hillside and presented black and leafless branches to the point from which the searing blast had come… I had seen land mines fall in London which chopped out huge sections of the skyline, but never anything like this. The hillsides and the fields teemed with people fleeing the holocaust. Soldiers, prisoners and Japanese convicts. Everyone helping everyone else to stay alive, with nationality and status forgotten…
In the early hours of the [next] morning, Japanese troops arrived from some other place inland. Quickly they took us in charge once more, but things were changed now. These were frightened men. At daybreak, they marched us down again into the smoldering ruins of the town… Groups of Japanese civilians stood silently at the site of former homes as we passed… Near the place of our former camp we hurried to make shelters for the injured among the piles of charred rubbish lying everywhere. The sun blazed down to add to their misery, and the heat stayed intolerable…
We searched for corpses trapped in buildings not completely burned and in shelters below ground sealed off by fallen masonry. There were many to find. The mutilated remains, we stacked on a row of about twenty funeral pyres, twenty or thirty victims to each pile of heavy timbers, to burn through the night. Next morning we stacked new timbers on the ashes of the old and began again… For three days we lived and laboured in appalling conditions, seeking rags to cover maggot infested wounds, until the Japanese brought news of a move to new accommodations. Soon we marched to an unused army camp a few miles outside Nagasaki…
One day as evening changed slowly into night and the shadows lengthened, I sat and dreamed on the grassy bank of a small stream running from the fields along the side of our new dwelling… On the opposite side of the stream stood a Japanese guard, an older man. He leaned with both hands on the barrel of his rifle as its butt rested on the ground between his feet. I looked up and his eyes met mine with a message. I knew it, and smiled. He stepped across the stream and stood beside me. Carefully he looked all around. ‘Senso owari,’ he said. The war is over. 16
The prisoner-of-war camp inside Saiwaimachi Factory was established in January 1943. As of April 20 of the same year, a total of between 470 and 480 prisoners-of-war were interned in the camp, mainly Dutch Indonesians, as well as Dutch, Australian, British and American POWs. However, the number fluctuated due to the high death toll related to illness, transfers to other camps, and the arrival of newcomers. The number of POWs in this camp on August 9, 1945, the day of the atomic bombing, is estimated to have been about 200 (according to one testimony, the number was 169). Some documents state that eight POWs died as a result of the atomic bomb, but others put the estimate at between 37 and 50, showing that no clear conclusion has been reached. The number of injuries, apparently large, also remains unconfirmed.
The prisoners-of-war mainly worked in the shipyard, leaving the camp every morning, crossing Inasa Bridge and walking to the shipyard along the riverbank. When they reached the main gate of the shipyard, recalls R.E. Bryer, the naval escort soldiers led them by the Scottish-built 150-ton cantilever crane and passed through a tunnel near the dock to get to the building berth where a tanker was under construction. Equipped with rivets, welders and other tools at the shed on the building berth, the prisoners-of-war began their daily labors under the command of respective group leaders.
In addition to the above, approximately 100 prisoners-of-war were working in the machine shop and another 100 in the foundry at Saiwaimachi Factory.
However, the year of the atomic bombing, many prisoner-of-wars died of pneumonia, probably due to the differences in weather, climate and food. The fatalities exceeded 100. Furthermore, some died in accidents or from other illnesses. Approximately 110 prisoner-of-wars had died in Nagasaki before the air raids of early August, and members of the training and discipline section of the shipyard interred their remains at Urakami Cathedral.
Attendance at Mass in Urakami Cathedral had become a weekly routine at the camp. The attendees included many English POWs. On Sundays, several dozen prisoners-of-war, escorted by guards, walked to the cathedral, which they would later remember fondly as “the Catholic church nestling in groves of orange trees.” However, as the number of air raids on Nagasaki increased, the visits to church were reduced to once a month and later to once every two month.
In May 1944, between 30 and 40 new prisoners-of-war were confined in the camp, mostly Australians and Americans.
On August 1, 1945, although past air raids had mostly concentrated on the shipyard, a squadron of enemy aircraft bombed other areas as well, including the Saiwaimachi Factory vicinity, killing three prisoners-of-war and a guard who were in the shelter. Since the shipyard had sustained heavy air-raid damage, the prisoners-of-war normally working in the shipyard were assigned to clear rubble at the Saiwaimachi Factory and to repair the camp buildings and air-raid shelter.
As a result, on August 9, most of the prisoners-of-war at Saiwaimachi Factory were exposed to the blast and radiation generated by the atomic bomb under similar life and death conditions, and the survivors suffered injuries of varying severity.
Except for a small group of 16 or 17 men, little information is available about the activities of prisoners-of-war in the hours after the atomic bombing. Some of them spent the night in terror together with civilians in air-raid shelters, and many watched the flames scorching the night sky while attending to their injured comrades after taking shelter in areas from Ibinokuchi to hillside areas including Zenza and Nishizaka-machi. The above group of 16 or 17 prisoners-of-war, escorted by troop leader Tajima Jidayu, spent the night at the military police facility in Rokasu-machi. A woman in Tenjin-machi later reported seeing about 100 prisoners-of-war huddling in the forest near Mt. Kompira. On the morning following the atomic bombing, a member of the Mitsubishi relief party saw prisoners-of-war on the banks of the Mifune River (between Ibinokuchi and Yachiyo-machi, presently covered over):
Indonesian prisoners-of-war were eating something on the west side of the river. The building that housed their quarters had been demolished, leaving only red-brick walls with a pitiful appearance. The prisoners-of-war must have spent the night in an open space on the riverbank. They were prisoners, but I felt sorry for them. None of them seemed to have suffered injuries, perhaps because the injured had already been taken to relief facilities. 17
That morning, guards gathered the prisoners-of-war in one place and led them to the Saiwaimachi Factory to unearth the bodies of fellow prisoners-of-war and to clear away the rubble. Reports Koga Kouki: “When it came to clearing the factory interior, we fortunately had 25 students from the Fifth High School, who had come to assist us, and we divided approximately 130 prisoner-of-wars into 25 teams and cleared up the entire
18 The unearthed bodies were cremated as described above by R.E. Bryer.
Meanwhile, another unit accommodated the seriously injured on a temporary floor unit for the injured, built halfway between the gas tanks in Yachiyo-machi and Saiwaimachi Factory, using lumber that had escaped the fire and scorched galvanized corrugated sheets. This unit was located in front of the shelter beneath the cliff. Some 200 prisoners-of-war spent several days in this floor unit and the air-raid shelter.
On August 13 or 14, the prisoners-of-war were transferred from the atomic wasteland to the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard Kogakura Dormitory. On their way, the prisoners-of-war entrusted the ashes of their dead comrades to the Buddhist temple Taiheiji in Naminohira-machi. The prisoners-of-war never returned to the factory again.
Kogakura Dormitory was located at Tomachi Middle School in present-day Shintō-machi. The No. 4 Dormitory, a cluster of five one-story buildings in the corner of the compound, had been used as a POW camp but had burned to the ground in subsequent fires. As a result the prisoners-of-war were transferred to the Gakushō Dormitory (five two-story buildings) in the same compound, and it was here that they welcomed the Allied Occupation Forces. When the Occupation Forces landed in Nagasaki on September 23, their first mission was to rescue and repatriate the prisoners-of-war still confined in the Gakushō Dormitory and the Kawanami Shipyard on Kōyagishima.
The following are excerpts from the memoirs of two prisoners-of-war: Peter McGrath-Kerr and Jack Johnson, Australians who experienced the atomic bombing at the Fukuoka No.14 Prisoner-of-War Camp attached to the Saiwaimachi Factory.
I was with a work party of six men repairing a bridge, over the Mifune canal, which had been blown up in an air raid on 1 August. About 10 a.m., the soldier guarding us took us back to camp for a rest, although normally we would have worked on for a few more hours. About 11 a.m., I was lying on my bunk, reading a book. Three others—Miller, Prendergast and Jobling—were in the room. We heard a plane approaching but since there was no air alarm, took no notice. Suddenly one of the others said that it was not a Japanese aircraft as the tone of the engine was different so we all started to run to the air-raid shelters.
From here on I remember nothing until five days later after I was rescued from beneath the wreckage of our living quarters. The first thing I remember was waking up lying on a stretcher and seeing that everything in sight was flattened. Apart from having been unconscious for five days, I had amnesia, five broken ribs and various cuts and bruises on my hands and legs. The others in the room had been less seriously hurt, but had we been in the open we would certainly have been burnt to death, since our camp was only 1,750 metres from the bomb's epicenter.
Casualties among the prisoners of war were four killed and about 30 injured – some from blast effects and many from radiation poisoning. The dead looked as though they had been smothered with custard. Except for one Englishman and myself, all the severely injured POW were Dutch. Other POW had minor injuries, J.J. Marshall with a dislocated collarbone and W. Reed with a hand injury, being the only ones I can remember. During the next fortnight four more Dutchmen died as a result of burns or other injuries.
After the bomb explosion, fires broke out and surviving prisoners with some Japanese guards took refuge on high ground over the river to the west of the camp. 19
Surviving prisoners-of-war conducted rescue missions in the area surrounding the camp, which had been reduced to rubble by the atomic bomb, until they were transferred to a barracks in the southern part of Nagasaki. After the transfer, the prisoners-of-war who were still in healthy condition went to the city to clear debris from around the foundry.
Jack Johnson, another Australian who experienced the atomic bombing at the Fukuoka No.14 Prisoner-of-War Camp, remembers the situation as follows:
On the morning of 9 August we were taken to work as usual but there was an air raid warning early about 7.30 a.m. We were hurriedly ushered back into the camp area and told to clear up the debris left over from the raid of 1 August. We were surprised at the lack of supervision on this occasion, all the guards seemed to disappear and there was no call to return to work at the foundry and so it was that we became dispersed about the camp.
I heard a plane overhead while I was walking along the covered alleyway at the southern end of the living quarters and realizing that I was a long way from the air-raid shelters I stepped out into a clear area and looked up to try and locate the plane and estimate whether I should hurry to the shelters.
What I saw was apparently three white parachutes in triangular fashion about 60 degrees elevation. Suddenly there was a brilliant flash like a photographer’s magnesium flash. Instinctively I dropped to the ground beside a kerbing at the side of the alleyway. Then came the blast with a deafening bang and I felt as though I had been kicked in the guts. I found myself gasping for breath, pinned under a lot of rubble and unable to see. The world was black. Very gradually the dust started to thin out and I was able to wriggle from under the beams that had me pinned down. After emerging from beneath the debris I stood up amid the thinning dust and as it cleared I was able to see above the ruins of our camp, the only things standing being the southern brick wall, portion of the northern wall and a concrete wall dividing our part of the camp from the part occupied by some Asian prisoners with whom we had never been allowed to have contact.
I joined some others of our group to search along the section we had occupied and there I found Peter McGrath-Kerr buried under a lot of fallen timber. He had been knocked out and apparently concussed. We freed him and took him to a clear area where a Dutch medical orderly was attending to some others who had been injured. We left him there and continued to search through the ruins until it seemed that further searching was useless. Small fires were starting in the area and everyone in sight was heading towards the hills. In doing so I saw what was to me a funny sight. The local ﬁre brigade was outside the fire station with two ﬁre trucks draped with fallen poles and electric power lines – completely immobilised. We climbed into the hills and eventually reached a bamboo grove that had been partly flattened by the blast but, as it seemed to offer some shelter, soon became a refuge for all who came that way.
Many were injured, some with weeping flesh where the skin was blown from their bodies and hung about them like the skin of a potato that had been boiled in its jacket. During the night we looked down into the pit of fire that was Nagasaki. As we watched planes flew overhead and incendiaries were dropped and there were many explosions within the burning town.
Morning came and people started to drift back to search among the ashes. My companions and I had only one thought – that was to find food. We made our way to the only place we knew – our former camp where we located the place where the kitchen had been. There we found some rice and soya bean mush which was sometimes used in our soup ration. There was no restriction on our movements as we wandered about in search of food but we gathered together at night in one clear spot beside the canal and spent the next two nights there. On the morning of August 12 some Japanese soldiers appeared and marched us off around the shore of the estuary and into the hills to a small airfield where we occupied the living quarters for the remainder of our stay in Nagasaki.
Working parties were taken back to the Mitsubishi foundry each day to clean up and for the cremation of four Dutch prisoners who died at the new camp.
On Sunday, 19th August 1945, we were assembled and told by the Japanese commander that the war was over and, although we were free to go, he requested that we stay and allow his men to remain with their arms as guards because it was feared that there might be civilian rebellion.
In the days that followed American aircraft dropped food supplies by parachute and a nearby family was induced to sell its bull for a promised 1500 yen. The bull was butchered and eaten while we waited the expected arrival of Allied forces. 20
The “small airfield” mentioned in the above memoir may refer to the area near the Kogakura Dam.
The Fukuoka No. 2 Prisoner-of-War Camp was located on Kōyagi, an island lying at the entrance to Nagasaki Harbor. Some 1,200 to 1,500 prisoners-of-war from the Netherlands, Australia, England and the United States were confined here and compelled to work at the Kawanami Kōyagishima Shipyard.
The American military forces had managed to determine that prisoner-of-war camps existed in the city of Nagasaki, and air command officials sent a telegram to the Joint Chiefs of Staff expressing concern that the presence of prisoner-of-war camps in the Nagasaki area might be grounds to reconsider the city’s addition to the list of atomic bomb targets. The telegram read as follows: “Although there was no photographic confirmation, according to a report by the prisoner-of-war source there is an Allied Forces’ prisoner-of-war Camp 1 mile north of the center of Nagasaki City. Please respond immediately to my question as to whether this could have an effect on the target selection for the atomic bombing.” However, the response from the Joint Chiefs of Staff was ruthless: NO CHANGE IN THE ORIGINAL OPERATION PLAN
7) Unzen Firebrick Factory (Komaba-machi 1-chōme, 0.5 kilometers northwest of the hypocenter)
Komaba-machi, located near the atomic bomb hypocenter, was a congested neighborhood of houses and small and midsized businesses. Consigned for war production by the navy, the Unzen Firebrick Factory was a typical establishment in the neighborhood. On the day of the atomic bombing, all of the 50 employees working there were killed, the only survivors being three employees who were absent due to military business or illness.
Yamada Masayoshi, managing director of the Unzen Firebrick Factory at the time, received news of the destruction of Nagasaki while at home in the town of Ōkusa, boarded a train about 1:00 p.m. the same day, and entered the devastated city. He later described his experiences as follows:
I finally arrived at the area near Ōhashi Railroad Bridge. Across the Urakami River was the Mitsubishi industrial zone, where over 30 small factories were concentrated. Most of them had burned to the ground, and smoke was rising from the ruins among tottering chimneys. The street flanking the railroad bridge had been a commercial center, with shops standing side by side, but most of the buildings had burned to ashes, with smoke rising all around. The scene of scorched ground stretching away as far as the eye could see, with only a few utility poles left half burned or toppling over, left a strong impression on me.
I had been involved with three or four other factories in the area. All of them were completely gutted. No one could be seen, making me wonder if everyone had died. The more than 30-meter-tall chimney of the firebrick factory was bent in the middle and about to collapse at any moment, but the two 100-ton firing kilns were standing with no serious damage. I wanted to enter the premises to investigate, but the heat was so intense that I could not approach.
Mr. Yamada returned home that day but came back into Nagasaki on August 10, the day following the atomic bombing, to check on the situation at the firebrick factory.
The firebrick factory was totally gutted and still too hot to step inside. In the furnace in the engineering room, there was nothing but a pound scale on the floor. A dead body was lying with a cheek to the road just outside the entrance to the engineering room. He must have been a worker of my company, but I could not identify him because his face was swollen beyond recognition.
I carefully entered the building, step by step, and saw the heads of office workers protruding from the debris of collapsed walls. Various furniture and other things lay scattered about. Beyond the area where chairs and desks were lying upside down, I found the body of Mr. Sadakata, executive director, lying on the floor. His fists were clenched above his shoulders as if he had been trying to clutch at something.
A horse was lying on the road in front of the executive suite, and a young man was lying at the entrance of the company air-raid shelter. More than 50 employees had been working at the firebrick factory, but I had not come across a single survivor yet. I picked up a piece of charcoal from the ruins, praying that at least one person might have survived, and wrote the following message on a piece of paper that was at hand: ‘Managing Director Yamada is alive. If you have survived, go to the office.’ I hung the paper on a rock in front of the office so that it would be conspicuous.
In the early morning of August 11, Mr. Nobehara, group chief in the molding section at the factory, visited Mr. Yamada. They immediately left together for the firebrick factory.
We entered the gutted ruins of the firebrick factory. A large material stone crusher loomed inside. I saw a half-burned body beside the crusher, the place at which the operator would have been stationed. Many people, pitifully turned into corpses here and there, held the postures in which they had been working. Not knowing where to start, we decided that, in any case, we would make a plan tomorrow to organize things one by one.
On August 12, we went to the firebrick factory a little past 11:00 a.m. While I was standing in the office wondering where we should start, in a place so cluttered that there was nowhere to step, a middle-aged man approached us. Looking closer, I saw that the man was Mr. Kawasaki, kiln section group chief. He ran up to me and held my hands tightly; we simply looked at each other. Then came another man, this time Mr. Kotani, wooden pattern section group chief. The three survivors of the firebrick factory I had so far found were, strangely, all group chiefs. We decided to begin by looking for tools with which to clear the rubble.
That day, we had visitors one after another, including the wife of the foreman Mr. Matsumoto, parents of Ms. Mori, one of the office workers, and relatives of other office workers. We cremated the remains of their loved ones in a vacant space in the vicinity of the firebrick factory. However, since there were dozens of charred bodies and ashes buried under the burned debris of the spacious factory premises, more than the few of us could handle, we were simply at a loss.
On the same day, Mr. Yamada visited the office of Mr. Ogawa, manager of the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard who was serving concurrently as president of the firebrick factory, to report on the devastation of the latter. Since the manager was out, Yamada reported to his sub-manager, Mr. Koezuka. After that, Yamada asked for funerary urns to collect the ashes of victims and also requested that about ten factory backup workers be dispatched before he returned home.
A few days after that, a few factory workers engaged in labor service arrived from the shipyard. Along with our factory’s surviving group chiefs, these workers recovered remains from the ruins, unearthed bodies and cremated them with pieces of wood they had gathered. Since it was impossible to identify the remains, all of the ashes had to be mixed and divided into the funeral urns provided by the shipyard. We then wrote the names of the victims on the urns one by one.
The next day, people assembled at Kanzenji Temple in Kamichikugo-machi to hold a memorial service for the war dead. After that, we went to the firebrick factory and began clearing the piles of charred rubble. 21
In Komaba-machi, the following small and midsized cooperative factories (including the Unzen Firebrick Factory) were found to have been completely destroyed or completely gutted by fire:
Kato Works (fatalities: 11)
Imamura Works (of 18 employees, 15 fatalities)
Toa File Kōgyō Co., Ltd. (fatalities unknown)
Sankyō Kōgyō Co., Ltd. (fatalities: 11)
Shōwa Wax Manufacturing Co., Ltd. (fatalities unknown)
Nagasaki Oil Mill Industry Co., Ltd. (closed on the day of the atomic bombing; of 20 employees, three fatalities)
Nagasaki Glass Industry Co., Ltd. (fatalities unknown)
Nittō Steel Mill Co., Ltd. (fatalities: nine)
Nagasaki Zinc Industry Co., Ltd. (fatalities unknown)
Nagasaki Soy Source & Miso Industrial Facility Association Komaba Plant (of 18 employees, 13 fatalities)
Sankō Works (fatalities unknown)
Daishin Steelworks (fatalities unknown)
Sanwa Steelworks (fatalities unknown)
Fukuda Welding Shop (fatalities unknown)
Matsuyama Steelworks (fatalities: 40)
Futaba Wood Industries Co., Ltd. (fatalities: 40)
Hosoki Steelworks (fatalities unknown)
Nagasaki Oxygen Co., Ltd. (fatalities unknown)
Suzuki Steelworks (fatalities unknown)
Nichigetsu Industry Co., Ltd. (fatalities unknown)
Ukijima Works (fatalities unknown)
In the Ōhashi-machi neighborhood on the other side of Urakami River, the following three factories were completely demolished:
Yamanaka Steelworks (fatalities unknown)
Yamakawa Steelworks (fatalities unknown)
Kataoka Steelworks (fatalities unknown) 22
1) Nagasaki Medical College Medical Department (Sakamoto-machi, 0.5 kilometers east-southeast of the hypocenter)
Nagasaki Medical College Pharmaceutics Department (Sakamoto-machi, 0.6 kilometers east of the hypocenter)
Nagasaki Medical College Hospital (Sakamoto-machi, 0.7 kilometers southeast of the hypocenter)
Nagasaki Medical College
Nagasaki Medical College was located in close proximity to the atomic bomb hypocenter and sustained severe damage at all levels, including the death and injury of personnel and damage to academic and medical facilities.
Since the buildings housing academic facilities—comprising the main building, basic course classrooms and two specialized course classrooms—were wooden structures, they were all completely destroyed as a result of the atomic bomb explosion and subsequent fires. In the basic course classrooms, most of the professors and other faculty members perished in the bombing or succumbed later to injuries and radiation exposure. Five lecture halls being used for classes in anatomy, biochemistry, physiology, bacteriology and pathology collapsed during lectures, and many basic course and medical course students died along with their teachers, causing the highest death toll at the college. Amid the piles of charred rubble, the bodies of professors lay at their podiums and those of students at their desks. Of approximately 480 students, 314, or 65%, died in the atomic bombing. The breakdown is shown in the table below (first-year medical students were attending lectures separately in two lecture halls). The fatalities at Nagasaki Medical College accounted for approximately 60% of all student fatalities in the Nagasaki atomic bombing.
Fatalities among faculty members are listed below with information on positions and classrooms:
Anatomy Classroom 1 (eleven faculty members): four faculty members, including Professor Ikeda Yoshito, died in the bombing or due to radiation exposure. One died at home.
Anatomy Classroom 2: Professor Takaki Jungorō died due to radiation exposure. One faculty member died in the classroom.
Biochemistry Classroom: three faculty members, including Professor Kiyohara Kan’ichi, died in the bombing. Professor Ashitsuka Yōsuke died in the lecture hall.
Physiology Classroom (seven faculty members): six faculty members died in the bombing. Assistant Professor Saitō Keiichi died in the lecture hall.
Bacteriology Classroom (nine faculty members): five faculty members died in the bombing or due to radiation exposure. Professor Naitō Tatsuo died in the lecture hall.
Pharmacology Classroom (nine faculty members): seven faculty members, including Professor Sofue Kanbun, died in the bombing or due to radiation exposure.
Pathology Classroom 1 (nine faculty members): six faculty members died in the bombing or due to radiation exposure.
Pathology Classroom 2 (three faculty members): one faculty member died in the bombing. Professor Umeda Kaoru died in the lecture hall.
Forensic Medicine Classroom: three faculty members, including Professor Kunifusa Fumi, died in the bombing or due to radiation exposure.
Hygienic Science Classroom (six faculty members): three faculty members, including Professor Ōkura Genichi, died in the bombing or due to radiation exposure.
East Asian Climate Research Institute (nine faculty members): six faculty members, including Professor Kaneko Sunao, died in the bombing.
Fatalities among students*
|Medical Dept.||Second-year students||Approximately 100||64|
|First-year students||Approximately 120||73|
|Medical Course||Second-year students||Approximately 160||110|
|First-year students||Approximately 200||167|
* Source: Wasurenagusa (Forget-me-Not), Vol.5
Nagasaki Medical College Medical Courses
Assistant Professor Ono Naoji (anatomy) died during his lecture, Assistant Professor Yasuno Masanosuke (pathology) died at his boarding house (the house of Assistant Professor Nagai Takashi) and Professor Matsuo Kyōya died at the college as a result of the atomic bomb explosion. Regarding medical students, as stated above, among the first and second-year students, 277 were crushed to death in the atomic bombing (see table above). Of the approximately 80 third-year students expecting to graduate in September and some provisional graduate students staying at the college, who had been assigned to various departments of Nagasaki Medical College Hospital, 28 died in the atomic bombing or due to radiation exposure. Student fatalities totaled 305.
Nagasaki Medical College Pharmaceutics Course
Only a few instructors in the pharmaceutics course were present on the day of the atomic bombing. Professor Sugiura Tsukoru died in the herb garden as a result of the explosion; Professor Yamashita Jirō died from the late effects of exposure to radiation at the Nagasaki Medical College Hospital.
Of the 201 students in this course, 88 first-year students and 51 second-year students had been mobilized to work at the main factory of Mitsubishi Electric Works and the Nippon Chisso Minamata Factory in Kumamoto Prefecture, respectively, and both groups luckily escaped the disaster. However, of the 49 third-year students who had returned from labor service at pharmaceutical factories in Fukuoka and Yamaguchi Prefectures in September for graduation, 23 died in atomic bomb explosion or due to the late effects of radiation exposure during reinforcement work on the air-raid shelter in the college. Additionally, nine second-year and four first-year students staying at the college also died in the atomic bomb explosion or due to the late effects of radiation exposure.
The fatalities in the pharmaceutics course totaled 44, including two professors, 36 students and six office workers.
The highest death toll was observed among medical students, followed by basic course students and pharmaceutics students.
Regarding the basic course students, 136 first-year and second-year students, like the medical students, met a tragic end in the middle of lectures. Of the approximately 80 third-year students in clinical training, as well as approximately 80 fourth-year students writing graduation examinations and a few provisional graduate students staying at the college (most of whom had been assigned to wards in the Nagasaki Medical College Hospital), 58 died in the atomic bomb explosion or due to the late effects of radiation exposure. Total fatalities in the basic course amounted to 194.
At the time, an estimated 900 students were registered at Nagasaki Medical College Hospital. Among those students, fatalities due to the atomic bombing amounted to 535, or approximately 60% of the total students.
Nagasaki Medical College Hospital
The clinical classrooms building at the Nagasaki Medical College and Nagasaki Medical College Hospital was a three-story reinforced-concrete building with a basement level located on a hillside more than 100 meters south of the basic course classrooms. Although the building managed to retain its external form, the interior was completely demolished on all floors, like buildings in the hypocenter area, and the debris later caught fire and burned. In this facility, fatalities were relatively few in number, but there were many injuries among faculty members, including President Tsuno’o Susumu, nurses, students and office workers. The injured were evacuated to the hillside behind the complex, either under their own power or after being rescued. As many as 300 people escaped from the basic course classrooms and crawled up the hillside near Anakōbō Temple. According to Professor Shirabe Raisuke, however, these people spent the night calling the names of friends and relatives and begging for water and more than half of them were dead by the next morning. Subsequently, the fatalities further increased due to the late effects of radiation exposure.
The fatalities in the individual departments of Nagasaki Medical College Hospital are as follows:
Tsuno’o Internal Medicine Classroom (47 staff members): 18 members, including Professor Tsuno’o, died in the atomic bomb explosion or due to the late effects of radiation exposure at the department nurse station or treatment rooms on the third floor of the main building.
Professor Tsuno’o sustained serious injuries to his back and femoral region while treating patients in the outpatient clinic on the third floor of the main building, where most of the other members were also treating patients. He was rescued and transferred to the hillside where he received treatment from Professor Shirabe. Professor Tsuno’o passed away on August 22 while under medical care at the Nameshi first-aid station. His body was transferred to the premises of the college and cremated on lumber stacked by other faculty members.
Kageura Internal Medicine Classroom (36 staff members): ten members, including the research associate Furukawa Ichirō, died in the atomic bomb explosion or due to the late effects of radiation exposure in classrooms and laboratories. Professor Kikuno Harujirō had returned home on business but died in the atomic bomb explosion. Professor Kageura Naomi was visiting the Nagasaki Prefectural Teachers Convalescent Hospital in Isahaya (where Professor Kageura served concurrently as manager) at the time of the atomic bombing.
Konoya Surgical Medicine Classroom (37 staff members): 12 class members, including Assistant Professor Ishizaki Shigeru, died of the late effects of radiation exposure in the outpatient clinic and surgical wards. Professor Konoya Kōhei suffered injuries in the outpatient clinic but later walked all the way over Mt. Kompira to the Shinkōzen Elementary School first-aid station to attend an emergency meeting on rescue operations.
Shirabe Surgical Medicine Classroom (approximately 20 staff members): research assistant Mizota Teruo and the nurse Kawata Hisae died in the atomic bomb explosion while in the laboratory and plaster room, respectively.
After experiencing the atomic bombing in his office, Professor Shirabe Raisuke attended to the injured faculty members on the hillside. From August 12, he organized a rescue team, comprised mainly of his own staff, and began a week of treating and nursing injured faculty members, students and nurses.
Gynecology Classroom (approximately 60 staff members): 21 staff including Professor Naitō Katsutoshi died in the atomic bomb explosion or due to the late effects of radiation exposure in the gynecology’s emergency ambulatory clinic, the gynecology ward on the second floor, or the medical office. Of those fatalities, nurses, including chief nurse Tanaka Yoneko, numbered 14. Professor Naitō experienced the atomic bombing in a hospital ward corridor while organizing books and documents that had survived the air raid on August 1. His body was later found in the boiler room.
Pediatrics Classroom (30 staff members): eight staff members (nurses) including the assistant Nomura Nakatoku died from the late effects of exposure to radiation in the pediatrics outpatient clinic and laboratory. Two other individuals died on a road and at home in the atomic bombing.
Dermatology Classroom (36 staff members): 12 staff members (nine nurses) including research associate Nakayama Yoshitoshi died in the atomic bomb explosion or due to the late effects of radiation exposure in the dermatology outpatient clinic, treatment room and laboratory. Professor Kitamura Kanehiko experienced the atomic bombing in the outpatient clinic. Most of the staff members suffered injuries due to glass splinters.
Ophthalmology Classroom (25 staff members): seven class members including Professor Yamane Hiroshi died from the late effects of radiation exposure in the ophthalmology ward.
Otorhinology Classroom (33 staff members): nine nurses, including the part-time worker Tamaya Kikue, died in the atomic bombing or due to the late effects of radiation exposure in the otorhinology laboratory and outdoors.
Psychiatry Classroom (20 staff members): eight class members including the assistant Terada Fumihiko died due to the late effects of radiation exposure in the psychiatry ward and classroom.
Physiotherapy Classroom (21 staff members): seven class members including the nurse Yamashita Hideko died in the atomic bombing or due to the late effects of radiation exposure in the physiotherapy classroom and other places (five members died in the athletic field). The physiotherapy classroom leader, Assistant Professor Nagai Takashi, experienced the atomic bombing on the second floor of the main building. Although he sustained a serious facial injury, he took part in rescuing the injured. On August 12, Dr. Nagai organized a medical team with surviving staff members and established a first-aid station in Mitsuyama, providing treatment to the atomic bomb victims until October 8.
Dispensary (19 staff members): six staff members including the assistant pharmacist Tanaka Emiko died in the atomic bombing or due to the late effects of radiation exposure in the dispensary office and prescription laboratory.
The nursing school (dormitory), a two-story building of wooden construction on the premises of Nagasaki Medical College Hospital, was completely demolished and consumed by fire. Most of the 180 first and second-year students had been assigned to hospital wards. Of those students, 58 died in the atomic bomb explosion or due to the late effects of radiation exposure. A total of 51 of the approximately 180 full-time nurses also died.
A total of 205 office workers employed in the Nagasaki Medical College main building, Nagasaki Medical College Hospital, and Nagasaki Medical College Medical and Pharmaceutics Courses, including assistant officer Yamaki Taketoshi, died in the atomic bombing or due to the late effects of radiation exposure.
The fatalities at Nagasaki Medical College were initially reported as “five college department professors, two college department assistant professors, five pharmaceutics professors, five medical course professors, 130 office workers, 420 students and 88 nurses, totaling 655 fatalities.” (Cited in the “Sixty-Five- Year History of Nagasaki Municipal Administration”.) Subsequently, the investigation by Dr. Shirabe Raisuke revealed the identity of victims previously recorded as “unknown.” In May 1974, each of the fatality figures was corrected accordingly. The table below presents the new figures, which are the currently accepted fatality figures for Nagasaki Medical College. (The fatalities among students include three who were killed in the air raid on August 1.) 23
With regard to the inpatients at the Nagasaki Medical College Hospital, the early discharge of inpatients had been recommended after the air raid on August 1, except for serious cases. It has been estimated that, of the approximately 300 patients including approximately 150 inpatients and 150 outpatients, some 200 perished in the atomic bombing. 24
In addition to the above, three or four of the 16 Nagasaki Fire Station personnel dispatched to the medical college perished due to the late effects of radiation exposure.
Fatalities at Nagasaki Medical College
|Staff||Faculty members||President & professors||17||42||892|
|Assistant professors & teachers||10|
|Research associates & assistants||15|
|Office workers||Assistant officers & office workers||206||206|
|Nurses||Nurses & midwives||51||109|
|Students||Student nurses||Student nurses and student midwives||58|
|Medical & pharmaceutics students||Medical department students||194||535|
2) Nagasaki Teachers College (1.8 kilometers north-northeast of the hypocenter—Yonogō)
Nagasaki Teachers College (site of the present-day Nagasaki University Elementary and Junior High Schools) was devastated, like Nagasaki Medical College Hospital, first by a conventional air raid and finally by the atomic bomb. In the conventional air raid on July 29, 1945, the central part of the reinforced concrete three-story school building was destroyed by direct exposure to the atomic bomb explosion. In the atomic bombing, the interiors of all the school buildings were demolished; two wooden two-story dormitory buildings (site of the present-day Nishiurakami Junior High School) collapsed and completely burned, other wooden school buildings were completely gutted, and the lecture hall was seriously damaged.
At the time of the atomic bombing, the principal, Ishihata Shinichi, was injured during a meeting in the principal’s office regarding students mobilized to work at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory. About ten persons, including teachers, were exposed to the atomic bombing in the office at the college dormitory. The following is an excerpt from the memoir of Morita Shinichi, a teacher who was in the dormitory office at the time of the atomic bombing.
I saw my colleague Mr. Teruya leave the building carrying the Emperor’s portrait, accompanied by a student in charge of security. Making sure that nobody remained in the room, I also got out of the building, but I lost sight of Mr. Teruya. When I reached the dormitory entrance, I looked in the direction of the athletic field in an attempt to determine Mr. Teruya’s whereabouts, only to be startled to see that the roof of the Mitsubishi Shipyard Ship Type Test Station, located across the road, had been blown off, leaving only a steel framework. The whole area was a sea of flames shrouded by smoke, through which I could glimpse the twisted steel frames of factory buildings. I just stood there, dumbfounded by the disastrous scene. Then I saw a group of first-year preliminary course students, who had been doing military training on the athletic field. They were naked and marred beyond recognition, some with burns on their faces or all over their backs, others with hideous injuries to their limbs. They were staggering with both arms raised, as though fleeing from ghosts. Their disfigured appearance discouraged me even from trying to cheer them up. The only thing I could do was to suggest that they head for the hillside.
While returning to the corner of the vegetable garden in front of the school, I saw flames in the dormitory kitchen. I assembled students and rushed to put the fire out. Professor Masumoto was already there, beating the fire out with anything at hand and spurring the students on. However, the fire had spread out of control; we had no choice but to let it burn. Professor Masumoto rushed toward the area where students were pinned under the debris of fallen buildings and crying out for help. They had to be rescued before the flames enveloped the area. Someone reported that other students had already taken their last breath in the ruins elsewhere. Unfortunately, there was just no time for us to get around to them. We continued our desperate rescue operation but made little progress as the raging fires approached. We finally rescued one person from the rubble. What a horrible sight! His leg had been severed! Already at death’s door, he died soon after that. Despite our rescue attempts, several bodies were later found in the burned ruins.
The fire consumed the collapsed dormitory building and spread to the main building through the connecting corridor. For the first time I looked in the direction of my home through the raging fire and the billowing smoke and knew that I had to prepare myself for the death of my family. Towering pillars of fire were advancing westward in the direction of Shiroyama-machi, where my house was located.
On the west side of the main building was an adjoining wooden building that comprised a woodworking shop, music room, organ practice room and martial arts training hall. The fire eventually spread to that building as well.
The students who had been working at an underground factory in Akasako had returned by that time. Some of them were uninjured, and even the injured ones were better off than the people in the factory and school. These students had already joined the rescue party organized to fight fires. I ran to the third floor laboratory on the western side in an attempt to prevent it from catching fire. Some students were with me. Their contributions at that time were heroic.
Pouring water over themselves, some of them climbed onto the roof of the wooden school building, while others leaned out from the windows of the second and third floors to pour water on the fire. Some students soaked in the water poured from above were also desperately trying to stave off the approaching fire. In this way, the spread of fire to the main building was arrested at the laboratory.
The above excerpt sheds light on the situation at Nagasaki Teachers College following the atomic bombing and the subsequent firefighting and rescue operations. As indicated in the following table, a total of 54 students perished in the atomic bomb explosion or due to injuries.
Statistics regarding Students at Nagasaki Teachers College on August 9, 1945
|Class||Regular course||Preliminary course||Total|
|Third- year||Second- year||First- year||Second- year||First- year|
|Enrolled in school||165||176||235||81||80||737|
|Enlisted in military||149||137||33||1||0||320|
|Leave of absence||2||3||7||1||1||14|
|Fatalities from atomic bombing||3||4||30||9||8||54|
According to this table, approximately 400 students were at the school (mobilized or staying behind) at the time of the atomic bombing, including some 150 in the factory and approximately 250 in the school building. Some 300 students had been mobilized from the second-year class of the preliminary course, as well as the first-, second- and third-year classes of the regular course, and assigned to the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory Ōhashi Plant, Sumiyoshi Tunnel Factory, Municipal Commercial School Factory and other factories. Since they were rotating on day and night shifts, the students working at the time of atomic bombing numbered about 150, or only half of the mobilized students. Fatalities at these factories were relatively low, but 12 first-year students of the regular course were killed while digging an air-raid shelter at the rear of Junshin Women’s High School, a great loss at the sites of mobilization.
At Nagasaki Teachers College, approximately 150 mobilized students were sleeping in the dormitory after the night shift, some 30 students who had stayed behind at the school were engaged in farm work or in clearing the rubble from previous air raids, and approximately 80 preliminary course first-year students who had not been mobilized were at the athletic field or in class at the time of the atomic bombing. Fatalities were greatest among those at the dormitory, followed by the first-year preliminary course students who were undergoing military training at the athletic field.
Moreover, after the war ended, 77 students died either while in school or after graduation in September. Among these fatalities, many clearly died due to the late effects of atomic bomb exposure. If these fatalities are added, the actual fatalities among students due to the atomic bombing greatly exceed the currently accepted number of 54.
With regard to the approximately 50 faculty members who had not been conscripted into the military, there were only two fatalities among miscellaneous service workers, with no fatalities among teachers.
3) Nagasaki Prefectural Technical School (0.8 kilometers north-northeast of the hypocenter – Ueno-machi)
All of the school buildings at the Nagasaki Prefectural Technical School (site of the present-day Nanzan High School), including four two-story wooden buildings and four one-story wooden buildings (laboratories, practical rooms and other facilities) were completely demolished and gutted as a result of the atomic bombing. Although the exact number is unknown, most of the faculty members and students died in the atomic bomb explosion or due to the late effects of radiation exposure.
For this reason, only a few records remain as to the damage to Nagasaki Prefectural Technical School, but the following story related by a former teacher named Honda Terumasa about a fourth-year student on his deathbed remains as a valuable testimony.
He told me that at first it felt like an earthquake, then the building collapsed, and those who had not been struck by debris on their heads or bodies crawled out of the ruins. He continued that, after crawling out, these people dispersed. He escaped with a teacher named Mr. Yamada and fled to an air-raid shelter. After a while, fire broke out. He explained that it was unbearably hot and that Mr. Yamada (who later passed away) left the shelter, leaving him behind. Since his poor condition hindered him from leaving, he simply moved further into the shelter and stayed there because he did not feel hot.
According to him, some people had been pinned under the debris. These people may have been Mr. Oka and the office manager, who died there. People in the woodworking section all perished in the classrooms. Even those who survived the collapse of the building died soon after. In time, fires broke out. The principal probably left the building when the fire was spreading and headed to the potato field on the athletic ground in an attempt to escape the fire. He must have fainted there from exhaustion. 25
Atomic bomb fatalities among Nagasaki Prefectural Technical School students by academic year
|Place of death||Fourth-year||Third-year||Second-year||First-year||Total|
|Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard||2||1||16||19|
|Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory||19||5||6||2||32|
|Mitsubishi Nagasaki Electric Works||5||26||31|
|Food Corporation Workshop for Food Storage Air-raid Shelter||12||28||40|
|Matsuyama-machi Workshop for Evacuation Building Demolition||25||25|
|Kyūshū Electric Power Co.||1||2||1||4|
|Telegraph Construction Bureau||4||3||7|
|Nagasaki Electric Tramway||7||7||2||16|
|Kyūshū Gōdō Glass||1||10||1||12|
|Nagasaki Administrative Section of the Moji Railroad Division||1||1|
Honda Terumasa explained that after leaving the office, the student had fled to the air-raid shelter at the back of the school building. Before taking his last breath in the evening, the student reported on the situation as described above.
According to a list of fatalities compiled by the Nagasaki Prefectural Technical School after the war, the death toll at this school included 22 faculty and clerical staff members, including the principal, Inoue Hisahito, and 199 students, or 221 fatalities in total (227 by another count). In the table above, which was based on the list, the data were classified by academic year and site of mobilization, but not all of the students numbered in the table died at the corresponding site. The same applies to faculty members. These numbers include individuals who “died in the facility for labor service,” “died at school,” “died at home” and “died while commuting to the workplace.”
For example, the day of the atomic bombing happened to be a school day for the first- and second-year students in the mechanical, electrical and architectural courses. Of those students, approximately 200 in the mechanical and electrical courses, led by their teacher Honda Terumasa, departed for Mogi to dig trenches and so escaped the disaster. Meanwhile, most of the 25 first-year students in the mechanical course, who had been on labor service in Matsuyama-machi to assist in demolishing private houses that had been deserted due to evacuation, died in the atomic bomb explosion along with four faculty members.
In addition, the National Nagasaki Women’s Technical Instructor Training School had been opened in the Nagasaki Prefectural Technical School (under the administration of the Nagasaki Prefectural National Mobilization Section). This facility was designed to train women as technical instructors for private cooperative factories. Two women who had graduated from women’s high schools were selected from every company or factory in Nagasaki Prefecture to be technical instructors. Reportedly there were about 20 students in the training school on the day of the atomic bombing. Trainees went to school from the dormitory at Kōtaiji Temple in the Tera-machi quarter. The fate of these trainees is not known. Although one theory has it that the bodies of members of the women’s labor service unit were found at the Nagasaki Prefectural Technical School, these may have been the corpses of students at the above training school. Also, the Nagasaki Prefectural Technical School had become a branch of Nagasaki Prefectural School for the Blind and Nagasaki Prefectural School for the Deaf. This branch school will be touched upon later. 26
4) Nagasaki Prefectural Keihō Middle School (0.9 kilometers south-southwest of the hypocenter- Takenokubo-machi)
The damages suffered at the Nagasaki Prefectural Keihō Middle School (site of the present-day Nagasaki Prefectural Nishi High School) are described as follows in a history of the school compiled after the war:
August 9, 1945
Around 11:05 a.m., an atomic bomb was dropped on the city of Nagasaki, affecting all the buildings and people of Nagasaki Prefectural Keihō Middle School. Of the buildings, the former arsenal, gymnasium, workshop and four newly constructed school buildings caught fire and burned to the ground. All other buildings were also destroyed except for the Emperor’s portrait hall, which remained intact.
Seven staff members, including the principal Mr. Kazukawa, assistant principal Mr. Kobayashi, teachers Mr. Fukudome and Mr. Hata, and three clerks by the name of Tominaga, Tajima and Iwanaga were working in the school at the time of the atomic bombing and perished under the rubble of the buildings. Three staff members, including the teachers Mr. Urakami and Mr. Nishimura and a part-time employee named Ura were injured in the school at the time of the atomic bombing and later died of the late effects of radiation exposure.
The teacher Mr. Tsuzaki, who had been supervising mobilized students at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks, was missing. The teachers Mr. Saito and Mr. Higashi were injured at the time of the atomic bombing and later died of the late effects of radiation exposure.
With regard to students, those in their second or higher academic year had been assigned to labor service at various factories, and only first-year students stayed behind in the school. Classes ended at 10:00 a.m. on the day of the atomic bombing because of examinations, and as a result the first-year students left school one hour before the atomic bomb explosion. Although most of the students were absent, almost all of the few remaining students and 20 to 30 members of the school protection unit, who were in the school at the time, perished instantly in the atomic bombing or died a few days later.
All of the school furniture and equipment were destroyed, but the school registers accumulated since the time of foundation were all intact.
Other than the above-mentioned three teachers who were working at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks, the faculty members who had been supervising mobilized students all survived. Staff members, including part-time employees, numbered 58 in total, including 23 who had been conscripted into the military. Of the remaining 35, those who died at work in the atomic bombing totaled 16, including the above-mentioned 13 staff members and three part-time teachers who died outside the school. The fatalities among students totaled 387.
To elaborate, the buildings including two wooden two-story school buildings, the main building and annex, were instantly destroyed by blast and heat of the atomic bomb explosion, seeming to rise from their foundations and then collapse into piles of rubble. The above document states that “the former arsenal, gymnasium, workshop and four newly constructed school buildings caught fire and burned to the ground,” but in fact only one newly constructed school building was gutted.
According to the Gonjōgaki report on persons on the school premises at the time of the Atomic bombing (penned by a teacher named Ikeda Sukenobu), 10 staff members including the principal Kazukawa Yogorō were in the principal’s office, other offices or the first-aid station. Of 40 students, five were on patrol in the schoolyard with teachers serving on the firefighting team, and 35 members of the school protection unit were on standby in front of the air-raid shelter. 11 employees, including research associates (business course students) and janitors were in the janitor’s room, teachers’ office and courtyard. There were 61 people in total in the school at the time of the atomic bombing, and most of them died in the explosion or succumbed to the late effects of radiation exposure. Only a few survived.
Mobilization status of Keihō Middle School students on the day of the atomic bombing
|Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks(Teachers: 3)||Nippon Transportation Co.(Teacher: 1)||Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory (Teachers: 4)|
|Second-year Team No.1, 2, 3, 6||221|
|Second-year Team No. 4, 5||110|
|Third-year Team No. 1 – 6||282|
|Fourth-year Team No. 1, 2||133|
|Fourth-year Team No. 2, 4, 5||163|
|Business course students||219|
As indicated in the table above, students had been mobilized to work at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks, Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory and Nippon Transportation Co. On the day of the atomic bombing, the 110 second-year students mobilized to work at the Nippon Transportation Co. were loading No. 4-type military motorboats onto freight cars at Nagasaki Railroad Station from morning and had to suspend operations due to an air-raid alarm. As a result they had gone home. Therefore, the experience of the atomic bombing was limited to the remaining two facilities.
Of these two facilities, the larger number of fatalities occurred at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks. The 192 fatalities at this facility, which included 63 second-year, 84 third-year, 27 fourth-year and 14 business course students, as well as four students scheduled to go on to an advanced level school, account for 50% of the 387 fatalities among students of Keihō Middle School. The remaining 195 students (including first-year students) died at home, at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory (about 50), or at school. These students included some 200 descendants of Japanese residents of China, Taiwan, and Korea, the so-called “continental students class.” A continental students class had been established in two schools: Keihō Middle School and Nagasaki Municipal Commercial School.
Of the 16 fatalities among school staff members, 10 were in school, three (including 1 missing) were at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks and three were at home. In addition, two school servants, including a janitor, died in the explosion of the atomic bomb.
The fatalities at Keihō Middle School totaled 405.
The fatalities in the labor section at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks should be introduced as part of the fatalities at this school. This section of the steelworks had been temporarily evacuated to one of the newly constructed school buildings, and 25 men and 50 women (including members of women’s volunteer labor units and mobilized students) were engaged there in payroll work. Since the building was completely demolished and gutted, as mentioned above, it is likely that the casualties among workers were as great in number as those among school staff and students.
5) Nagasaki Commercial School (1.1 kilometers northwest of the hypocenter- Aburagi-machi)
Nagasaki Commercial School (site of the present-day Nagasaki Prefectural Gymnasium and Nagasaki Science Museum) was located in a secluded area surrounded by fields. For this reason, the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory evacuated some of its facilities to this school as early as 1944. Also, Nagasaki Prefecture used the buildings to store food separately: milk in a classroom on the second floor; rice, wheat, miso and soy sauce in the lecture hall.
However, the atomic bomb inflicted damage on this school as serious as that suffered by schools in the hypocenter area. The three-story reinforced concrete main building and annex, lecture halls, gymnasium, martial arts training hall, arsenal, Seimei Dormitory (with a training hall) and other adjunct facilities were completely destroyed or gutted. Two of the evacuated facilities were also destroyed: the machine shop on the first floor of the main building and the wooden precision machine shop.
The actual situation faced by teachers and students at the time of the atomic bombing is not clear, because data is scarce. Hirako Shōji, who experienced the atomic bombing and sustained injuries in one of the facilities evacuated to the school by the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory, described the circumstances as follows in his memoir:
The most wretched, I felt, were the Nagasaki Commercial School pupils who had been naked to the waist, engaged in digging air-raid shelters and carrying rope baskets under the instruction of their teachers. I saw them with my own eyes, lying on the ground, calling their parents’ names and begging for water, with their entire bodies burned. I was at a loss for words, and I could not help but curse the war that had brought such tragedy upon these innocent boys.
I admired the teachers’ efforts to rescue their pupils, knowing that death stared them in the face, with their bodies burned all over. They were handling matters such as what should be done for the injured pupils until they took their last breath…
A member of the naval reinforcement unit who had escaped from the Mitsubishi Arms Factory Morimachi Plant arrived on the scene. He told me that Mori-machi had been completely destroyed. I couldn’t keep tears from rolling down my cheeks, fearing for the safety of my family members and preparing to die myself. The man also told me sad news about the annihilation of the Ōhashi Plant.
Our factory had also caught fire, the flames gradually spreading from a classroom in the middle of the second floor. People who had collapsed were carried in one after another. I wanted to offer my condolences every time I was informed that someone had died, but I could not find the strength to move my tired body. I lay on the ground in front of the air-raid shelter, overcome with of misery but feeling no pain. Then I finally felt some relief and encouragement to see members of the women’s cooperation unit working diligently to help others. 27
The memoir goes on to describe how the injured people begging for water were given milk from bottles scattered on the floor. It also mentions that, in the middle of this life and death situation, some unscrupulous people looted rice and wheat from the lecture hall.
There were apparently several hundred people in the two factories evacuated to the school (precision instruments plant and machine shop), including regular workers, members of the women’s cooperation unit and male and female mobilized students, but the number of fatalities is unknown. Memoirs are the only means of surmising how many people were killed.
The following article written to commemorate the 75th anniversary of the foundation of the Nagasaki Commercial School describes the fatality status and the devastation of the school buildings as follows:
Although the main building managed to retain its outer shape, the steel window frames had been blown away and the wooden building materials gutted, leaving hardly a piece of wood intact. The steel structure was twisted like strands of taffy, telephone cables were dangling like cobwebs, and all sorts of machine tools, including lathes and motors of various sizes, had been reduced to ugly burned-out lumps of dark red. The gruesome scene of scattered fragments of work clothing, wooden clogs and lunch boxes, which must have been the belongings of victims, was horrible enough to make people cover their eyes. Wafts of a stench beyond description struck people’s noses. Every wall was covered with bloodstained messages to relatives, undoubtedly written by victims squeezing the last ounce of strength from their dying bodies. Only the sound of water dripping from a crack in the concrete ceiling broke the eerie silence. 28
Fatalities among students and teachers (second- and upper-year students by mobilization destination)
|Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory||108|
|Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard||16|
|School staff members||13|
|Second Commercial School||4|
Nagasaki Commercial School students were mobilized to work at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory and Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard. Although the exact number is unknown, it is estimated that 543 of the students had been dispatched to the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory and that a considerable number were working in the facilities evacuated to the school. In the chronological table included in the aforementioned commemorative article there is a note saying that, “nine staff members including Mr. Miyatake and hundreds of students were killed.” According to records from the school, the fatalities by academic year included 34 first-year students, 60 second-year students, 36 third-year students and 22 fourth-year students, as well as six fatalities among honors course students and four students from the Second Commercial School, bringing the total to 162 fatalities. In addition, 13 staff members and 162 students, or 175 in total, died at home or at work and were included in the above table.
6) Chinzei School (approx. 0.5 kilometers southwest of the hypocenter – Takenokubo-machi)
Chinzei School (site of present-day Kwassui Junior and Senior High School) was located on a hill that commanded a view over the Urakami River close to the hypocenter. The atomic bomb pulverized the school building and other facilities. Although the main school building was a four-story reinforced concrete structure, the fourth floor completely collapsed, and the north half of the third floor facing the hypocenter collapsed and the interior of each floor was burned. Wooden facilities, including the gymnasium, martial arts training hall and two-story dormitory collapsed and burned to the ground. At the same time, two factories of the Mitsubishi Electric Works and Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks, which had evacuated to the school, were destroyed.
Vice-principal Chiba Taneo, who was exposed to the atomic bombing in the teachers’ room on the second floor of the main school building, describes the devastation in his diary as follows:
Before long, I heard the voices of the other teachers who had been in the room. They were groping for the exit between the mess of destroyed desks, bookshelves and chairs and through the thick smoke in the room. I desperately dashed out of the room and saw that the corridor on the second floor had already caught fire. So I descended the stairs to the first floor and rushed to the principal’s office, where the Emperor’s portrait was located. However, flames had already engulfed the principal’s office and the adjacent laboratory and there was nothing I could do. The first floor was a true hell on earth! Voices calling for help and moans of agony were echoing everywhere. I searched for the Emperor’s portrait in the area beneath the windows of the principal’s office, just in case it had been blown into the schoolyard by the tremendous bomb blast, but I could not find it anywhere.
I quickly returned to the entrance and set about rescuing the injured. I heard the voices of the employees Mr. Furukawa and Mr. Murase and went toward the sound. Both of them were pinned under concrete walls. In an attempt to first rescue Mr. Furukawa, I tried desperately to remove the wall fragments covering him, but I was unable to do so due to the mass of tangled wires. Applying a winch did little to help. Then I tried to remove the debris covering Mr. Murase. That was easier than I had thought. Fire was approaching down the stairs. Inside the office was a sea of flames. I finally succeeded in rescuing Mr. Murase, who didn’t seem to have sustained great injuries. I carried him to the athletic ground. Then I returned to Mr. Furukawa and tried every possible measure to rescue him, but I just couldn’t remove the debris. The fire was drawing closer and closer. Encouraging him, I choked back tears of frustration and went outside from the entrance. ‘Glory to his majesty the Emperor,’ I heard Mr. Furukawa chant calmly from inside.
In the schoolyard, I could still see the teachers Mr. Kajiwara and Mr. Arita. I casually looked up from the west side of a stall and saw a third-year student named Maeda sticking his head out the window of the third-floor landing. I shouted at him, ‘Come down quickly.’ However, he seemed to be injured and stayed put. I carefully passed through the second-floor corridor and went up the stairs to rescue him. The floor was covered with his blood. He seemed to have injured his back. I lifted him in my arms and carried him to the athletic ground, where I lay him next to Mr. Murase. Maeda seemed to have lost his sight. Azuma Kazunori was also there.
The four-story school building, which had seemed as sturdy as rock, was crushed and leaning toward the west. The waiting room and martial arts training hall were smashed to pieces. Looking around, I saw a ghastly, scorched wasteland as far as the eye could see. Fires were rising here and there. The sunny day had become quite dark due to the purplish black smoke that enveloped the entire city. It was a true hell on earth. I repeated the phrase, ‘war is hell’ in my mind. Judging from this situation, the entire city might have been burned to ashes. In the middle of the athletic field, somebody was sitting up straight on his knees, looking toward the east. Another man was running about and bawling the most ridiculous things.
On the day of the atomic bombing, the situation regarding mobilization of Chinzei School students was as follows:
Koshikiiwa: all first-year students and some second-year students had been sent to dig air-raid shelters (teacher’s name unknown)
Mitsubishi Electric Works Hiradogoya Plant: most of the second-year students at work (Teacher Takase)
Mitsubishi Electric Works Chinzei School Plant: more than 10 third-year students
Nagasaki Ralroad Station Engine House: more than 10 third-year students (two killed, 14 seriously and slightly injured)
Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory Morimachi Plant: 127 fourth-year students and 168 supplementary course students, totaling 295 students (28 killed, 36 seriously and slightly injured)
Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory Himi Tunnel Plant: 12 or 13 (academic year unknown, students mobilized from every middle school)
Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks: some fourth-year students at work
In addition, there were 10 teachers and 10 students who had stayed behind at the school (as part of the school protection unit). The principal, Saijō Hiro’o, was exposed to the atomic bombing and injured in the engine house at Nagasaki Railroad Station during a meeting regarding mobilized students.
Regarding fatalities, the final figure is yet to be determined because the Chinzei School registers and other data were destroyed by fire. The first official report from the school contains the following information: “Four teachers were killed and eight injured. Fifty students were killed or missing, and 55 were seriously injured and a few slightly injured.” In the first postwar issue of the school magazine Chinzei Kōyū (“Chinzei Schoolmate”), the fatalities were updated as follows:
“Fatalities at Chinzei School included four teachers and about ten students killed in the school and three teachers and 90 students who died at home or at work, or a total of seven teachers and approximately 100 students.”
However, the fatalities were further increased to nine teachers and 130 students (including 75 students whose names had been identified). These figures have been accepted as accurate estimates of the atomic bombing fatalities at Chinzei School. (Report by Akinaga Kaoru of Chinzei School)
Two factories had been evacuated to Chinzei School and were using the first and second floors, basement and gymnasium of the main school building. These were the Mitsubishi Electric Works (for airplane parts, 130 workers) and Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks (small machinery, mechanical working and research sections, 130 workers). Most of the workers were members of mobilized student cooperation units.
According to the report on an investigation conducted by Tōkyō University Medical School, 118 people were in the school at the time of the atomic bombing, including staff members. Of those, 87 were factory workers (including female workers). Although 87 is only one-third the number of workers at ordinary times (260 in total from the two factories), this was probably because there were many absentees due to the air-raid alarm that had been in effect since the morning. Most of the 87 factory workers died in the atomic bomb explosion or due to the late effects of radiation exposure. 29
7) Junshin Women’s High School (1.4 kilometers north-northeast of the hypocenter – Ieno-machi)
Most of the facilities at Junshin Women’s Vocational School were destroyed and gutted by the atomic bomb, including the wooden two-story school building, one dormitory building and a one-story kindergarten building.
At the time of the atomic bombing, nine school staff members (nuns) including the principal, Sr. Esumi Yasu, were in the school and one sick student was in the dormitory. There was a short interval here between the collapse of the buildings and the outbreak of fire. For this reason, able-bodied school staff members who crawled out of the rubble were able to rescue the injured and evacuate to a tunnel-type shelter. They also rescued Sr. Ezumi, who was pinned under the fire division wall of the lecture hall and was found praying with a rosary in her right hand. The student in the dormitory died instantly in the atomic bomb explosion. Four of the injured staff members died shortly after the atomic bombing.
On the day of the atomic bombing, the first-year students living in the dormitory escaped the disaster because they had gone to Mt. Mitsuyama to collect pine oil in the company of eight school staff members.
Approximately 600 second-year or higher students at Junshin Women’s High School (including about 100 honors course students) had been mobilized to work in factories, about 500 at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard Ōhashi Parts Factory and the remaining 100 at the shipyard factory evacuated to the Nagasaki Prefectural School for the Blind and Nagasaki Prefectural School for the Deaf (“Mo” Factory). Both factories used the two-shift system, so half the students were at work on the day of the atomic bombing. As mentioned previously (see Factory No. 45), about 100 students died in the atomic bomb explosion or succumbed to the late effects of radiation exposure. Those who were at work in branch factories in Michino’o and Naminohira all survived.
The other half of the students were at home preparing for the late shift. Unfortunately about 70 of them were living in the Urakami district and perished in the atomic bombing.
The staff members who escaped serious injury, all Catholic nuns, conducted dedicated search, rescue and body identification operations for students after coming down into the city from Mt. Mitsuyama and heading to the factories where the students had been working. The fatalities at Junshin Women’s High School numbered 214, all of whom died in the atomic bomb explosion or due to the late effects of radiation exposure. The breakdown is shown in the table below. 30
8) Jōsei Women’s Vocational High School (0.6 kilometers northeast of the hypocenter – Ueno-machi)
At Jōsei Women’s Vocational High School (current site of Shinai Kindergarten), which was located near the hypocenter, fire quickly spread from building to building and most of the school staff members and approximately 50% of the students died.
The two-story wooden school building, dormitory building, single-story school building, gymnasium and other facilities were completely demolished and gutted.
On the day of the atomic bombing, one school staff member stayed behind in the school with several boarding students (number unknown) who were scheduled to work at factories from the afternoon. Twelve out of 14 staff members died in the explosion of the atomic bomb or due to the late effects of exposure to radiation. Of the 12 school staff members who died, one was at school, four including Principal Kanda Sadako died while at work collecting pine oil and building a hut to safeguard important documents with first-year students in the mountains in neighboring Takao-machi, and the other seven were with students at the adjacent Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard Factory No. 45. Identified student fatalities alone amounted to 200, including 161 (70 second-year, 43 third-year and 48 fourth-year students) who were killed in factories. The remaining 39 students seem to have died in the dormitory or at home. Fatalities among school staff members and students totaled 212.
Some Jōsei students were providing labor service at “Mo” Factory, located in the nearby Nagasaki Prefectural School for the Blind and Nagasaki Prefectural School for the Deaf. Those who escaped death in the explosion fled injured and shocked from the factory and took whatever shelter was accessible to them. However, most of these students died in the shelters without receiving treatment. Meanwhile, in the school, many were pinned under wooden beams. Soon after the atomic bombing, several Sisters of the Infant Jesus rushed to the scene from their branch office in Nishinaka-machi. They rescued students and attended to them at the nearby air-raid shelter for several days, but despite all the nuns’ efforts, the injured students died one after another not only because medical supplies had run out, but also because their injuries were fatal. Although a few school staff members and several students were taken home by their families and given treatment, it was not long before they also died from fatal injuries.
9) Mitsubishi Nagasaki Technical School for Youths
See the previous passage about the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Technical School for Youths “Ha” Factory (Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd.)
10) Nagasaki Prefectural School for the Blind and Nagasaki Prefectural School for the Deaf (0.6 kilometers northeast of the hypocenter – Ueno-machi)
The fact that the buildings of these two schools were in use as “Mo” Factory was mentioned previously. The following is a brief description of the schools.
When “Mo” Factory took over the site, the school for the blind was moved to temporary premises in Maruta-gō, Nagayo-chō, Nishisonogi County in June 1945, while the school for the deaf was moved to temporary premises in Kazusa-chō, Minamitakaki County in May the same year. A temporary branch of the latter school was also established in a classroom in the Nagasaki Prefectural School of Technology for students who could not be evacuated. However, whether those students were at school at the time of the atomic bombing is not known.
According to records from the school for the blind, the principal, Mr. Taira, died due to atomic bomb injuries suffered after finishing his duties in the prefectural office and leaving for the school.
11) Yamazato Elementary School (0.7 kilometers north of the hypocenter – Hashiguchi-machi)
The bracket-shaped three-story main building of Yamazato Elementary School (four floors including the basement) was of reinforced concrete construction and collapsed only on the uppermost story at the south and west sides. However, the greater part of the building, except the first and second floors on the north side, succumbed to the fires that broke out later, starting from the science classroom on the second floor front.
With regard to casualties, of the 32 persons in the school on the day of the atomic bombing, 26 staff members including Principal Mawatari Hisayoshi and two school employees died. The survivors were said to number only four. On the day of the atomic bombing, the school staff had divided into two work teams, with off-site lessons canceled in the school district. All members of Assistant Principal Koga Ukio’s team (one man and 11 women) sustained burn injuries while pulling weeds in the school rice paddy. Among Principal Mawatari’s team (five men and ten women), who were digging an air-raid shelter in the cliff beside the athletic field, three died in the atomic bomb explosion and nine suffered injuries. Three persons, including the teacher Hayashi Hideyuki, dove into the air-raid shelter and survived. In the school building, one staff member on day duty survived, one employee who had been preparing lunch died, and two teachers and one employee were injured in the basement. Members of Assistant Principal Koga’s team returned from the rice paddy with burn injuries, but took their last breath on the same day and most of the others died within ten days after the atomic bombing.
Moreover, the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory accounting section, which had been evacuated to the school, was using two classrooms on the north side. In this temporary office there were more than ten workers, including students who had been mobilized from Nagasaki Prefectural Women’s High School and other schools. This office, like the school section, seems to have suffered many casualties. Said the teacher Yoshiura Asa (one of the survivors): “the bodies of mobilized students, who had apparently tried to flee to the air-raid shelter, were lying here and there on the ground.”
In addition, there were casualties among the defense unit members stationed in the rooftop sentry box and waiting on standby at the temporary defense unit’s office. The 950 bags containing emergency rice rations that were stored in the basement smoldered to ashes during the week.
Since the school was in the hypocenter zone, the fatalities among students were very high in number. Among a total of 1,581 enrolled pupils (as of June 30, 1945), approximately 1,300 are thought to have died at their homes.
12) Shiroyama Elementary School (0.5 kilometers west of the hypocenter – Shiroyama-machi 1-chōme)
Shiroyama Elementary School, the elementary school nearest to the hypocenter, suffered severe casualties and damages to buildings and is remembered today as one of the major sites of atomic bomb devastation in Nagasaki.
The school buildings included the main building and old school building, both of which were three-story reinforced concrete structures. The main building toppled toward the west, bent from its foundations, with the interior on each floor gutted and part of the third floor destroyed along with the outer walls. Fires completely destroyed the second and third floors. Only the first floor escaped the fire. The teachers’ office, located on the first floor of a wing connecting the new and old school buildings, was the first to catch fire, and of the school documents, instruments and registers data went up in smoke.
At the time of the atomic bombing, 29 school staff members, including Principal Shimizu Sasei and a child of one of the school staff members were present in the school, as well as three government office workers in the principal’s office on the first floor of the main building and other places, bringing the total to 33 persons. Of them only four persons, including the child and assistant principal Arakawa Hideo, survived. The fatalities included four out of five persons in the principal’s office, one person in the teachers’ office, four persons in the night keeper’s room, two in the school employees’ room, 17 on the athletic field and one government worker who died after being exposed to radiation outdoors, bringing the total to 29 persons. The four survivors included one in the principal’s office, two in the doctor’s room and one in the stairwell. Notably, many of the 17 persons who were weeding and raking the sweet potato field were so severely wounded by the atomic bomb that they were rendered unidentifiable.
The damage to the old school building included internal damage on the first floor, damage to part of the second floor and the collapse of most of the third floor. However, no fires broke out.
The Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory payroll section, which had been evacuated to this school, was using the second and third floors at the time. Approximately 120 people were at work on the day of the atomic bombing, including 44 students mobilized from Nagasaki Economy Vocational School, Nagasaki Prefectural Women’s High School, Nagasaki Commercial School, Women’s Commercial School and Keihō Women’s High School. Some of them were taking turns reinforcing an air-raid shelter at the end of the schoolyard. The death toll included all 66 workers on the third floor (using classroom No. 6), 31 of 36 workers on the second floor (using classroom No. 5), and six of 17 who were reinforcing the air-raid shelter. Moreover, two of the 11 survivors suffered from the late effects of radiation exposure.
In total, therefore, 132 of the 152 people at the school perished. About 40% of the total died instantly in the atomic bombing, while the remainder died of the late effects of radiation exposure.
Fatalities among pupils attending Shiroyama Elementary School are estimated to be about 1,500, but the exact enrollment is unknown. Of the 1,500, more than 1,400 died at their homes like the pupils of Yamazato Elementary School. The following memoir about the resumption of lessons after the atomic bombing clearly indicates the magnitude of the tragedy:
Lessons resumed on November 15, 1945. Five teachers, including assistant principal Arakawa, taught 14 or 15 emaciated pupils whose hair had fallen out from radiation exposure. Four classes were organized, one for first-grade and second-grade pupils, one for third-grade and fourth-grade pupils, and one each for fifth-grade and sixth-grade pupils. In this way the handful of teachers and pupils who had survived the atomic bombing picked up the pieces, each class gathered around a teacher in a single classroom at Inasa Elementary School.
The emergency supply of 1,500 bags of rice stored at the school remained unscathed by the fire and was rationed later.
13) Fuchi Elementary School (1.2 kilometers south-southwest of the hypocenter – Takenokubo-machi)
The damage to the school buildings
The three-story reinforced concrete (main building) and wooden courtyard buildings were gutted, leaving only the outer carcass. The L-shaped two-story wooden school building and one-story wooden courtyard building both collapsed and burned.
Along with the school buildings, 40 small machines from the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard machine shop (“Fu” Factory), which had been evacuated to one of the buildings at Fuchi Elementary School, were also destroyed. The winding factory of the Mitsubishi Electric Works had also been evacuated to this school, but the state of the machinery is unknown because the machines had been transferred to Mogi on the day of the atomic bombing, as previously stated. The number of employees of the winding factory and “Fu” Factory remains unknown.
According to the report published by the Science Council of Japan, a total of 66 people were present in the school at the time of the atomic bombing, including 17 school staff members, one pupil and 48 factory workers, and of these 22 were killed. Fuchi Elementary School teacher Takahashi Yoneko reported that two employees were also on duty that day and that, of the 17 school staff members, seven including assistant principal Yoshida Tadashi died in the atomic bombing or from the late effects of radiation exposure. 31
At the time, 45 or 46 school staff members and 1,400 to 1,500 pupils were registered at Fuchi Elementary School. Since the school had been designated as a “Class II Technical School” and most of the pupils in this course were in the higher grades, most of them had been mobilized to work at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard, Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory, Mitsubishi Electric Works and Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks, as well as at the Imperial Marine Products Administration Co. ice-making plant and railroad stations. One first-year class planning to proceed to middle schools was engaged in newspaper delivery. However, attendance on the day of the atomic bombing is unknown. On that day, although some facilities refrained from putting pupils to work because an air-raid alarm had been in effect since morning, the fatalities among victims at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory Morimachi Plant and Urakami Railroad Station included pupils from this school. No deaths were reported among the newspaper delivery team members working in the Yamazato school district.
According to a record on fatalities among mobilized pupils, the death toll at Fuchi Elementary School included four teachers and 133 pupils, or 137 people in total.
14) Nishiurakami Elementary School (1.8 kilometers north-northeast of the hypocenter – Yonogō)
Nishiurakami Elementary School was situated at the rear of the Nagasaki Teachers College and connected to it by a passageway. The atomic bomb explosion severely damaged the bracket-shaped two-story wooden building, but, thanks to the firefighting activities carried out by the school staff and colleagues from the Kawahira branch school who rushed to the site after the atomic bombing, the school building escaped the fires spreading from the teachers college.
Four of the 13 staff members who were in the school on the day of the atomic bombing were killed. Of the three pinned under the debris of the building, one was found dead in the evening and the remaining two were rescued from under the debris but died by evening. The other one was exposed to the atomic bombing in Nishigō while out on school business, and passed away the next day while receiving care from his colleagues. Several other staff members suffered injuries of varying severity.
The death toll among pupils reached approximately 170. It was a school day, but most of the pupils are thought to have returned home due to the air-raid alarm issued on their way to school and to have died at home or outside.
15) Zenza Elementary School (1.5 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter – Zenza-machi 1-chōme)
Located at the foot of Mt. Kompira, the two wooden buildings of Zenza Elementary School were completely demolished, and the interior of the two concrete school buildings were completely gutted. The machinery and X-ray apparatuses of Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks, which had been temporarily moved to this school, were also damaged. The stocks of food (sugar cane) stored in the library burned for two weeks.
On August 9, although no children were attending school, the staff was divided into a school team and work team to engage in their respective tasks. Staff members who were at school at the time of the atomic bombing sustained injuries from shattered glass and wooden debris scattered by the blast. Meanwhile, nine members of the work team who had been weeding the school rice paddy located in Nishi-machi (present-day Nishimachi Elementary School), experienced the atomic bombing on the spot and four of them died 10 to 30 days later.
With regard to pupils, details are unavailable because all the school documents, including enrollment registers, were lost to fires. However, of approximately 850 pupils enrolled in the school, approximately 500 are thought to have died at home or outside.
16) Inasa Elementary School (2.0 kilometers south of the hypocenter – Inasa-machi 3-chōme)
Inasa Elementary School was located on the hillside between the bank of Urakami River and Mt. Inasa. On August 9, no pupils were attending school, and all the staff members, except one, were at work.
The explosion of the atomic bomb demolished the wooden building on the south side, smashed the windowpanes of two three-story reinforced concrete school buildings, and damaged all the window frames. The steel-frame lecture hall (gymnasium) was seriously damaged and caught fire, but the building escaped complete destruction because prompt firefighting activities confined the fire.
According to the investigation by the Nagasaki City Education Association in October 1945, Inasa Elementary School had 870 registered pupils as of the end of July 1945 and 24 registered school staff members as of the end of June. Fatalities among the pupils and school staff were 105 and one, respectively.
17) Nishizaka Elementary School (2.1 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter – Ofunagura-machi)
Nishizaka Elementary School was located on the hillside at the south foot of Mt. Kompira and commanded a view over Nagasaki Harbor. All the school staff members were working that day. After inspecting and organizing the materials for air defense and fire control, they were taking a break in the teachers’ room.
Three buildings including the one-story wooden structures of the control wing, kitchen and two-story wooden classroom wing, were completely demolished and later consumed by the fires that spread from the Daikoku-machi neighborhood.
All of the staff members were pinned under the debris of the control wing, and most of them, including the principal, sustained glass wounds and bruises.
According to the investigation by the Nagasaki City Education Association in October 1945, Nishizaka Elementary School had 843 registered pupils as of the end of July 1945 and 25 registered school staff members as of the end of June. Fatalities among the pupils and school staff were 14 and one, respectively.
18) Nagasaki Women’s Commercial School (3.2 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter – Shin-machi; present-day Kōzen-machi and site of the Kyūshū Regional Agriculture Administration Office Nagasaki Branch)
The Nagasaki Women’s Commercial School was located close to the Prefectural Office, City Hall, district court, newspaper companies and the post office. Built and developed since the opening of Nagasaki in the 16th century, this neighborhood represented the history of Nagasaki as an international trade port.
At the time of the atomic bombing, second-year and older students had been mobilized to the Postal Savings Bureau, Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard, Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory, Mitsubishi Electric Works, Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks and Kawanami Shipyard to engage in payroll calculation and general clerical work. They went to school only once a month.
According to school records: “On August 9, students on their way to school were instructed to return home due to the issuance of an air-raid alarm. A few school defense unit members and 17 school staff members stayed behind at the school. The two-story wooden school building toppled at the middle from the impact of the atomic bomb blast, but did not collapse. First came the flash of light, then, a few seconds later, a thunderous explosion accompanied by a shower of splintering glass. Nothing remained on the desks in the teacher’s room. By evening, the school had burned to ashes as a result of the fires spreading from Motohakata Post Office.” Other reports state that Nagasaki Women’s Commercial School burned to the ground by around 7:00 p.m.
On the day of the atomic bombing, while second-year and upper-year pupils were mobilized to arms factories and other facilities as members of cooperation units, no first-year pupils died in the school because they were on summer holidays. However, the actual death toll remains unknown. A document on casualties among middle school students in Nagasaki suggests that there were 23 fatalities at this school, while another document states that “as many as 42 fatalities were identified among students of Nagasaki Women’s Commercial School who had been mobilized to work at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory, Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard and Mitsubishi Electric Works.” 32
1) Mitsubishi Hospital Urakami Branch (1.3 kilometers south of the hypocenter – Mori-machi)
Mitsubishi Hospital Urakami Branch, located east of the present-day Mori-machi streetcar stop, was a two-story wooden and mortar building with a waiting room, dispensary, internal medicine and surgery clinics and X-ray room on the first floor, as well as a patients’ room with 24 beds and an eye clinic on the southwest side of the second floor.
After the atomic bombing, the eye clinic alone remained intact as though moved in one piece as far as ten meters, a rare example of the impact of the atomic bomb explosion. Yamamoto Senji, the attending doctor at the time, recalls the situation as follows in his memoir: “Looking around while trying to go down to the first floor, I realized that the room, which had been at the southwest corner of the building, was standing alone after being blown as far as ten meters from its original site. The stairs had been torn off but were still there. I carefully descended them to the first floor.” Yamamoto goes on to describe the state of the hospital as follows:
We escaped from the ruins of the hospital and fled to an air-raid shelter dug in the wall of a cliff in Midori-machi. One of the three nurses at the eye clinic was missing. The collapsed hospital soon caught fire. The fatalities at that time included the branch director Dr. Masabayashi, an X-ray technician and a few nurses and inpatients.
I stayed two nights in the air-raid shelter and began treating the injured there, using the medicines that had been stored underground on the hospital premises. However, the supplies included only a tin of Mercurochrome ointment and medicine for burns and so quickly disappeared in the treatment of the people who poured into the shelter.
The day after the atomic bombing, Mr. Koezuka, sub-manager at Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard, pitched a tent to use as a contact office and directed the relief team from the Saiwaimachi Factory. 33
2) Mitsubishi Hospital Funatsumachi Branch (2.8 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter – Funatsu-machi)
Mitsubishi Hospital Funatsu-machi Branch, located on the site of present-day Tamanoura Park, was a red-brick, two-story building with an office, dispensary, surgery clinic and waiting room on the first floor and a reception, internal medicine clinic and eye clinic on the second floor. In addition, there were two company dormitories and a company warehouse on the premises.
The atomic bomb damage was limited to part of the interior that had collapsed and the scattering of glass splinters that caused slight injuries. However, the building caught fire in the conflagration spreading from the direction of Kanaya-machi in the evening and went up in flames during the night. All buildings on the premises were completely destroyed. No patients had been admitted to the hospital.
3) Urakami Daiichi Hospital (1.4 kilometers northeast of the hypocenter － Motohara-machi 2-chōme)
Urakami Daiichi (No.1) Hospital was a sturdy three-story red-brick reinforced concrete building (four stories from the rear) located on a quiet hillside in Motohara-machi 2-chōme.
The hospital was originally built in 1925 as a seminary of the Roman Catholic diocese of Nagasaki and became a tuberculosis sanitarium in 1942.
At the time of the atomic bombing, Dr. Akizuki and Dr. Yoshioka were treating patients and approximately 70 patients were hospitalized here.
The interior of the hospital was instantly destroyed by the blast and caught fire, destroying most of the medical equipment and supplies. Only the outer walls were left intact. After the atomic bombing, the hospital served as the only medical institution functioning in the scorched wasteland. Details are provided in the section entitled “Medical Aid” in Part III.
1) Gokoku Shintō Shrine (0.8 kilometers west-northwest of the hypocenter – Shiroyama-machi 1-chōme)
Completed in December 1942, the main structures of Gokoku Shintō Shrine burned to ashes in the atomic bombing, including the Honden (main hall), Noritoden (prayer hall), Haiden (general hall), Shinsensho (hall for preparing food offerings), Saikiko (building for storing festival instruments), Yokurō (outer corridor) and Ōtorii (Great Torii Gate).
Fujimoto Tōjirō, chief of the Nagasaki Prefectural Education Section, reported the situation after the atomic bombing as follows:
As you can see, this shrine was instantly destroyed by the atomic bomb explosion on August 9. The katsuogi and other roof decorations were blown as far away as the top of the hill. The Great Torii Gate, which had been anchored one meter into the ground, was uprooted and blown five or six meters away. Top beams were also blown to the same spot. The shrine burned completely to ashes, not by fires spreading, but by a spontaneous conflagration.
The resident priest was at City Hall that day and rushed back to the shrine after the atomic bombing. After returning the mitamashiro (an object worshiped as a symbol for the spirit of the dead) to Iwafuchi Shintō Shrine in Nagayo Village, he began rescuing the injured people associated with his shrine. Unfortunately, two assistant priests, three persons involved in construction, and four members of the education section had been killed. Also, two family members of a priest died after sustaining serious injuries. In other words, those who were on the shrine premises at the time of the atomic bombing were all killed.
In addition to the damages to the shrine described above, the surface of the black cobblestones was reddened by heat because the hilltop shrine was fully exposed.
2) National Treasure Fukusaiji Temple (2.6 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter－Shimochikugo-machi)
Fukusaiji, a temple of the Ōbaku Zen Sect founded in 1628, was one of the most representative examples of Chinese culture in Nagasaki. The temple had caught fire in the afternoon but reportedly burned longer than any other building in the city. It is said that the temple burned for two days. The main structures, which stood side by side, caught fire one after another, first the Founders’ Hall, then the Sennin Hall, Main Hall, Gohōdō, Shōkorō, Kuri (priests’ residence), Daishoin, Inryō, Shoren-dō, Daikanmon Gate and Sanmon (main gate). Various architectural treasures and other precious artifacts burned to ashes during the night, leaving only the empty plot of land. According to witnesses, bluish flames and roaring flames scorched the night sky. The stone statue of a rakan (arhat), left at the corner of the compound looking up at the sky, left a very strong impression on the people who saw it after the atomic bombing.
3) Urakami Cathedral (0.5 kilometers east-northeast of the hypocenter- Moto’o-machi)
The Japanese Catholics of the Urakami district, piling one brick upon another, completed Urakami Cathedral in 1925 after 30 years of labor. With its twin towers rising to a height of 26 meters, the cathedral was the largest of its kind in East Asia. However, the atomic bomb explosion instantly destroyed the domes and demolished the cathedral, leaving only a carcass of broken brick walls that burned all night. Two priests—Nishida Saburō and Tamaya Fusakichi—and more than ten parishioners shared the cathedral’s fate. In addition, approximately 2,482 bags containing emergency rice rations and approximately 1,000 cases of somen noodles burned to ashes. Protestant minister Miura Seiichi, who visited Nagasaki after the atomic bombing, described the devastation of Urakami Cathedral as follows:
I finally arrived at Urakami Cathedral, which had been destroyed leaving only some stone pillars and walls. The monument marking the 50th anniversary of the revival of Christianity in Nagasaki, which had been placed in front of the main entrance, had fallen over sideways on the ground. The cathedral was seriously damaged, with smashed statues of saints, smoldering piles of objects, bricks and pieces of glass scattered around. A statue of the Apostle Peter was standing on the wall intact, with the Bible in his right hand and his eyes looking high into the sky. His lips seemed about to emit a prayer. What would Peter, the successor of the secret key between heaven and earth, have tried to say? Peter, please explain what this devastation means and tell us when peace will come to this world. I was at a loss for words standing in front of the destroyed cathedral. Please, Peter, say something to the travelers of this world. 34
4) Nakamachi Church (2.7 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter － Nishinaka-machi)
Nakamachi Church, established in 1896, was known as one of Nagasaki’s three greatest churches.
The interior was completely destroyed by the atomic bomb blast, and the roof burned in the fires that broke out several hours later. All that remained was a carcass, leaving only the steeple topped by a cross and the outer walls. One priest died in the blast. The attached kindergarten and nursery burned to the ground.
5) Nagasaki Prefectural Fuchi Shintō Shrine (1.7 kilometers south of the hypocenter – Takenokubo-machi)
The shrine pavilion, surrounded by trees in present-day Fuchi-machi, collapsed under the blast of the atomic bomb. The huge chinquapin tree in the compound was uprooted, and the trees in the surrounding forests toppled away from the hypocenter with their leaves smoldering reddish brown. The fences on the premises were destroyed, except the one at the side of the shrine office. The torii gate and stone garden lanterns were also damaged.
6) Shōtokuji Temple (1.5 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter – Zenza-machi 1-chōme)
The main hall at Shōtokuji collapsed and many of the stone monuments in the compound toppled over or shifted around on their foundations. Two employees of the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory, who used this temple as a dormitory (Zenza Dormitory), were killed.
7) Shōenji Temple (1.4 kilometers north of the hypocenter – Nishigō)
Shōenji, located on a secluded hillside, collapsed instantly in the atomic bombing. The barracks of the second battalion of the Sasebo Naval Guard Unit also collapsed. The wife of the resident priest was seriously injured. An eight-year-old child was injured and an eight-month-old baby was killed instantly.
8) Honrenji Temple (2.4 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter – Nishiuwa-machi)
Honrenji was located at the foot of Mt. Shimokasagashira, on a hillside above the town level in present-day Chikugo-machi.
The atomic bomb blast blew the roof tiles off the main hall and partially destroyed the kuri (priests’ residence). The sanmon (main gate) remained intact but later succumbed to fire, followed by the kuri. White smoke was billowing from the main hall before the sanmon caught fire. The main hall smoldered for so long that once fire broke out the ruins burned with great intensity. The iron door of the earthen warehouse in the compound was bent by the blast, creating a gap through which the fire entered and burned all of the items stored there, including precious works of art and documents.
Honrenji was in use as a dormitory for employees of the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory, but most of the workers had departed for work on the day of the atomic bombing, and no one died at the temple.
1) Nagasaki Post Office Telephone Section (3.6 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter – Irie-machi)
Since the Nagasaki Post Office Telephone Section (Telecommunications Exchange Office) was located in Irie-machi (usually referred to as Senba-machi), a neighborhood approximately three kilometers from the hypocenter, there were no fatalities in this office. However, some people sustained injuries from broken windowpanes. The office had no air-raid shelter. This meant that all the staff members were at their stations, intent on maintaining telephone exchange operations as long as possible.
On August 9, since the air-raid alarm of the morning had been canceled, the window shutters, which were hard to move, were half opened. At the moment of the atomic bomb explosion, a pale blue flash filled the office, and glass splinters from broken windowpanes showered the faces of operators who had turned in surprise toward the windows. With blood oozing between fingers pressed to faces, they ducked under the switchboards or huddled in the corner. Approximately 4,000 switchboard lamps lit up all at once, indicating that all the telephone lines had been cut off. Hamada Yasue, an operator at that time, described the situation as follows:
Someone shouted ‘Get down!’ and I threw myself onto the floor facedown. When I fearfully lifted my face, the windowpanes were shattered and the sky was dark like evening. All the faces of the people around me were inky-black. All the houses I could see through the windows had collapsed or toppled over. Although the event lasted only twenty minutes, it seemed like several hours to me.
Meanwhile, great damage was done to the telephone network, with most of the lines disrupted. Only 600 out of 4,900 remained connected; 80% were destroyed. A book on the history of telecommunications in Kyūshū describes the damage as follows:
Most of the 4,900 telephone lines in Nagasaki City were cut off, except for 600 telephone lines in the Ōura District. The telephone lines leading outside the city via Hongōchi escaped damage, but those passing through Togitsu, including important connections to the Sasebo Naval Headquarters, were severed. Military telephone lines, called tokkōsen, connected the anti-aircraft gun bunkers around the city with the Nagasaki Fortress Headquarters, and Sasebo Fortress Headquarters with the Western Defense Headquarters. These had to be secured by all means and so were given top priority.
The employees tenaciously maintained their positions after the atomic bomb, subsisting on a few balls of rice boiled in the neighborhood.
There were approximately 50 telephone lines leading outside the city, including six to eight going to the main island of Honshū via Fukuoka, two lines to Kumamoto, three lines to Kokura, one line each to Moji and Shimonoseki and three lines to Saga, as well as lines in Nagasaki Prefecture, including eight lines to Sasebo, three to Ōmura, three or four to Shimabara, six to Isahaya, two to Fukue, one to Narao and a few other lines.
Telephone lines leading outside the city included the military telephone lines called tokkōsen, which received priority over all other lines, and the lines dedicated to railroad telephone communications and communications with news agencies. The military telephone line between Sasebo Naval Headquarters and Sasebo Fortress Headquarters was cut off because it passed through Urakami and Togitsu. The railroad telephone line was also cut off. Despite this situation, the connections to foreign news agencies remained in operation because they passed through Hongōchi. Although these lines were sometimes cut off, they worked well without any problem.
Ishibashi Hanji, sub-chief at the Nagasaki Telephone Office, described the situation as follows (in 1973):
Although it is true that we kept using the telephone lines outside the city that were still working, the operation was anything but normal. Despite efforts by executives, including the telephone office chief, to get through to the central office to report the damage, telephone calls between Nagasaki and Fukuoka tended to be interrupted or terminated. However, we managed to intermittently report the situation by way of the lines to Kumamoto, Kokura, Moji and Shimonoseki. It was more like correspondence than reportage…
In such a situation, we could not accept requests for out-of-city calls, but we managed to secure lines for periodic press communications and reserved calls. However, these lines were never actually used because the telephone network in the city had been destroyed.
2) Nagasaki Telegraph Office (3.8 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter – Umegasaki-machi)
The Nagasaki Telegraph Office in Umegasaki-machi (present-day Shinchi-machi) was housed in one of Nagasaki’s oldest reinforced concrete buildings. The first floor of the three-story building accommodated the Nagasaki Post Office, while the Nagasaki Telegraph Office used the second and third floors.
In July 1945, when air raids intensified, the communication measures division was moved to the Nagasaki neighborhood of Hotarujaya to secure communication channels, and the important lines were accommodated there. Meanwhile, the Nagasaki Telegram Office was relocated to the Nagasaki Center in Sakurababa-machi except for the receiving and delivering sections. While these emergency measures were being taken, the day of the atomic bombing arrived. Although the façade of Nagasaki Telegraph Station in Umegasaki, which was architecturally sound, survived the disaster, the equipment and apparatuses were seriously damaged and more than ten persons sustained injuries. The degree of damage to the offices moved to Hotarujaya and Sakurababa was moderate. Particularly, the communication channels for important lines were secured, thanks to the selfless efforts of the staff.
However, the atomic bomb threw the offices into great confusion and made communication impossible. Since top priority had to be given to military channels, any communications that may have been achieved must have been by people involved in the military. 35
With regard to fatalities, 11 persons, including workers of Nagasaki Post Office Telephone Section, Nagasaki Telegraph Office and Nagasaki Telecommunications Construction Office, died due to radiation exposure suffered during the wiring work.
Other fatalities among those involved in the Ministry of Communications are described below.
Although no one died in the Nagasaki Motohakata Post Office building (completely gutted), 27 people, including post office workers engaged in mail and telegram delivery, died due to radiation exposure.
As for fatalities in the special branches of Nagasaki Motohakata Post Office, one person died in the Nagasaki Railroad Station office, seven in the Mezamemachi office, four in the Urakami Railroad Station office, four in the Matsuyamamachi office, five in the Takenokubomachi office, three in the Ōhashimachi office, one in the Nishiurakami office and three at the Nagasaki Regional Postal Savings Bureau, bringing the total to 28 people who died due to radiation exposure.
3) NHK Nagasaki Broadcasting Station (2.3 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter – Nishizaka-machi)
The NHK Nagasaki Broadcasting Station was a one-story steel frame structure located on the hillside near Nishizaka Park. Although damage to this building was limited to a portion of the interior, the antenna and wires on the high steel tower were left dangling and the insulation destroyed, resulting in the complete suspension of broadcasting functions. The power lines were cut in pieces and scattered about.
For this reason, the last radio broadcast before the atomic bombing was the short report that enemy aircraft had been spotted proceeding west over Shimabara Peninsula (the actual words of the report differ slightly according to various testimonies).
As mentioned in the chapter “Records of Other Cities and Prefectures,” the atomic bombing of Nagasaki was reported in news broadcasts in the neighboring prefectures of Kumamoto, Fukuoka and Saga. Messages like “Everyone in Nagasaki! Evacuate immediately!” and “Fires have broken out. Everyone in Nagasaki, put out fires” are said to have been issued repeatedly. Although several witnesses outside Nagasaki Prefecture reported hearing radio broadcasts of this type, NHK Nagasaki Broadcasting Station did not issue any such message and, given the chaotic situation in the city, it is unlikely that anyone in Nagasaki Prefecture heard such emergency broadcasts.
At the time of the atomic bombing, the NHK staff in Nagasaki totaled 29 in number (excluding those conscripted into the military). Of these, 24 including the director Niibori Sōichi were in the station, while the others were away on business trips, working outside or at home. Although there were no fatalities in the station, most of the staff members suffered injuries. Three people died outside the station, including one collecting fees at Nagasaki Medical College and two resting at home after work.
Damage to the station building was minor, but confusion ensued inside. Most of the staff members including Mr. Niibori remained in the station despite the chaotic situation. One of the technical assistants “brought in a cart from a canning plant with sardine cans warmed by fire.”
Taguchi Wakaharu, one of the people who experienced the atomic bombing and received a can of sardines that day, had a narrow escape from death at Chinzei School, the site of a temporary factory of the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks. He describes the situation in his memoir as follows:
I finally decided that evening to return to my home in Nishizaka, and headed off barefoot. When I reached the garden in front of the Nagasaki Broadcasting Station and looked in the direction of my home, I realized that it would be impossible to proceed because of the fires raging in the city. Sitting in the garden, I noticed the station staff members distributing cans of sardines to the disaster victims. I received one of the cans, but my stomach refused the sardines (because I had no appetite) and I vomited a moment later.
4) Nagasaki Shimbun (3.3 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter – Ōmura-machi)
Nagasaki Shimbun (newspaper) was located in a two-story (partially three-story) wooden building on a corner in Ōmura-machi (present-day Manzai-machi). The atomic bomb explosion shattered windows along with their frames, upended desks and type cases, and scattered the floor with movable lead type.
In this building, there was no sign of fire at first, as in the Nagasaki Prefectural Office. However, smoke began to billow from the ceiling of the second floor around 1:00 p.m. The fire was extinguished by a bucket brigade, but smoke soon rose from the same place again. One former employee reported trampling out the fire and pouring water on it. Around 2:00 p.m., the fire that had spread from the Nagasaki Prefectural Office reached the Uenoya Ryokan Hotel and Fukuya Ryokan Hotel across the street in Ōmura-machi, giving off a shower of sparks. Meanwhile, the building began belching smoke a third time, from the ceiling. The employee tried to extinguish the fire but sensed an imminent danger. Although the fire was still under control across the street, he fled to an air-raid shelter considering that he would not able to prevent the spread of fire to the building from flying sparks. In this way, the company building and rotary presses were all destroyed. That was near 5:00 p.m. on the day of the atomic bombing. 36
The local office of the Asahi Shimbun in Hokaura-machi and the Nishi-Nippon Shimbun branch office in Ōmura-machi were also destroyed in the conflagration.
1) Kyūshū Electricity Distribution Co. Nagasaki Branch (2.9 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter – Gotō-machi)
Although the entire neighborhood of Gotō-machi, where the Nagasaki Branch of Kyūshū Electricity Distribution Co. was located, burned until midnight, the selfless efforts of the approximately 60 employees saved the company buildings from fire.
The substations, which were important facilities, were completely destroyed as described in the above “Damage List:” Nagasaki Thermal Power Plant (Inasa-machi 3-chōme) completely collapsed and burned, Zenza Substation (Zenza-machi 2-chōme), Takenokubo Substation (Takenokubo-machi) which supplied electricity to Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks, Urakami Substation (Yonogō) and Asahi-machi Substation (Asahi-machi), which supplied electricity to the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory completely collapsed. Moreover, four steel towers collapsed, 1,413 utility poles toppled and burned and 84,703 interior-wired lights were destroyed by fire. This caused a two-day blackout throughout the city.
At the Nagasaki Branch office, 21 employees were killed, most having been mobilized for recovery operations in response to the air-raid damages to the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard Saiwaimachi Factory, Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks and Nagasaki Medical College on August 1.
2) Saibu Gas Co. Nagasaki Branch (2.0 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter – Yachiyo-machi)
Flying sparks caused the fire in the Saibu Gas Co. Nagasaki Branch and accessory buildings. However, since the entirety of Yachiyo-machi was reduced to ashes, these buildings could not have escaped burning.
The two gas tanks had both been built around 1920. The older one with low-pressure capacity was destroyed, retaining none of its original shape. The other tank, which had been repaired recently and had a greater pressure capacity, was located further from the hypocenter and suffered only limited damage to the outer casing and the umbrella aggregate. According to a damage report written by Kusakabe Tadashi, manager of the company’s engineering works section in Nagasaki and submitted to the U.S. military, the atomic bomb did not trigger gas explosions: “Since both the gas tanks held only a small amount of gas at the time of the atomic bombing, the injection bubble phenomenon occurred in the tanks due to cracks in their damaged parts, and the gas was probably instantly discharged and dissipated in the air.”
At the time of the atomic bombing, there were approximately 20 employees at the Nagasaki Branch. Although no one died in the explosion, eight people later perished due to late effects.
Gas facilities were under construction at the company’s Ōhashi Factory (1.0 kilometer north of the hypocenter- Ōhashi-machi). A gas tank completed some time earlier was in use as a storage tank for gas transferred from Yachiyo-machi. For this reason, and due to the same phenomenon occurring in the tank in Yachiyo-machi, the factory seems to have avoided secondary accidents.
However, since the Ōhashi Factory was located close to the hypocenter, the facility was seriously damaged and the workers sustained grave injuries. Although the gas tank was larger than the two in Yachiyo-machi combined, the upper part crumpled and collapsed. The company dormitory and other buildings in the compound collapsed and burned. All five employees, as well as 18 of 20 workers from the outside and 13 of 15 employee family members, or a total of 36 persons, died in the atomic bomb explosion.
3) Nippon Express Nagasaki Branch (2.7 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter – Daiba-machi 4-chōme)
Damage to the buildings of Nippon Express Nagasaki Branch included the collapse and burning of one office building and one and two buildings in the Nagasaki Railroad Station and Urakami Railroad Station compounds, respectively. Of the 590 employees of this company, 81 died in the atomic bomb explosion. The death toll was highest in the Urakami Railroad Station compound, where the workers included mobilized students and others on labor service.
4) Nagasaki Electric Tramway Co. Ltd. Ōhashi Business Office (0.5 kilometers north-northwest of the hypocenter – Oka-machi)
Nagasaki Electric Tramways (common name) sustained serious damage, with its three-kilometer section of tracks between Nagasaki Railroad Station and Ōhashi destroyed, main facilities including buildings and rolling stock seriously damaged, and workers killed or seriously injured. Because of this, tramway service in Nagasaki came to a complete stop. The situation is described as follows in the Sixty-Five-Year History of the Nagasaki Municipal Administration: “The substation in Zenza-machi, Ōhashi Business Office, Morimachi factory workers waiting room and warehouse, Ōhashi Dormitory, Hamaguchi Dormitory, Zenza Dormitory and other facilities were completely demolished and gutted. Twenty-one trams were burned and/or destroyed and 120 utility poles were bent and/or broken. Several sections of electric lines and tracks were burned, and fatalities among workers reached over 110. Naturally, the tram services had to be suspended.”
Of the total 56 trams owned by Nagasaki Electric Tramway, about half the operative stock was lost. Fatalities among employees, including mobilized students and members of the women’s volunteer labor units, accounted for 23% of the total of 500.
Of all facilities affected by the atomic bombing, the impact on the Ōhashi Business Office was the worst. The office was located near the hypocenter, in front of present-day Ōhashi Tram Station, and comprised a terminal and tram shed. Almost 90% of the fatalities among Nagasaki Electric Tramway’s personnel occurred in the Ōhashi office.
5) Nagasaki Soy Sauce & Miso Industry Cooperative Association
All of the facilities of this cooperative association in Nagasaki, including the three factories listed below, were exposed to the atomic bombing during soy sauce or miso production operations.
The building of the Mifune-machi Plant (2.3 kilometers south-southeast of the hypocenter – Mifune-machi) was completely gutted and three of the 18 persons at work on the day of the atomic bombing died in the explosion.
The Sakamoto Plant (0.8 kilometers south of the hypocenter – Sakamoto-machi) was also completely gutted. One of the six persons at work on the day of the atomic bombing had gone into the old part of the city; the other five died in the explosion.
The building of the Komaba Plant (0.4 kilometers north-northwest of the hypocenter – Komaba-machi 1-chōme) was completely demolished and gutted. Three of the 15 people at work on the day of the atomic bombing had gone on business to the old part of the city; the other 12 all died in the atomic bomb explosion.
The damage to military-related war supplies and buildings in Nagasaki as well as casualties among military personnel have been summarized as follows:
|Position name||Completely collapsed||Half collapsed||Partially collapsed|
|Kompira gun units||4|
|Kompira anti-aircraft units||1|
|Aburagi anti-aircraft units||1|
|Inasa gun units||5|
|Inasa anti-aircraft units||1|
|Nakanoshima gun units||3|
|Nakanoshima anti-aircraft units||1|
|Other military buildings||Broken window panes|
b) War supplies (artillery ammunitions and weapons)
No damage except for one artillery scope in the Kompira gun units
c) Casualties among Military and Civilian Personnel
|Unit name||Fatalities||Seriously injured||Slightly injured|
|High-angle gun units||5||102 (30)||90|
|Heavy artillery units||2|
|Special guard units||55|
Note 1: ( ) indicates number who died later.
Note 2: The personnel from heavy artillery units, special guard units and headquarters who died in the atomic bombing were within two kilometers of the hypocenter on official or other business.
d) Military-Related Mobilized Ships
The Motoyama-maru (50t) sustained only slight damage to its upper deck.
Fatalities among mobilized students in the hypocenter zone were outlined previously. The present sub-chapter touches upon mobilized students in parts of Nagasaki outside the hypocenter zone, as well as areas inside and outside Nagasaki Prefecture. Fatalities among the students (and teachers) mobilized from about 70 schools amounted to approximately 680. Records on the mobilized students in Nagasaki provide the following information about fatalities (numbers in parentheses
In Nagasaki City
Nagasaki Vocational School of Economics: 26 (1)
Nagasaki Teachers College: 6
Nagasaki Prefectural Middle School: 31
Kaisei Middle School: 24 (1)
Tōryō Middle School: 41 (1)
Nagasaki Prefectural Women’s High School: 160 (4)
Nagasaki Municipal Women’s High School: 98 (4)
Kwassui Women’s High School and Kwassui Women’s Vocational School: 49 (5)
Keihō Women’s High School: 54 (3)
Kakumei Women’s High School: 19 (2)
Tamaki Women’s Vocational High School: 12
Katsuyama Elementary School (advanced course): 6
Other schools suffering up to three fatalities totaled nine in Nagasaki City and 18 in Nagasaki Prefecture.
Outside Nagasaki Prefecture
Kyūshū Imperial University: 4
Kurume Vocational School of Technology: 7
Saga Prefectural Imari Commercial School: 13
The Seventh High School: 16
Saga Prefectural Commercial School: 4
Other schools suffering up to three fatalities amounted to 12.
(Note: Some of these figures have been corrected in accordance with data from Nagasaki City)
The above data simply describe the main aspect of fatality status. Information on fatalities among the general populace is presented in the next section. In any case, the Urakami District north of Nagasaki Railroad Station was not simply reduced to ashes but turned into a living hell of death and destruction, as indicated by the above damage status. In that district, thousands of injured people who had managed to survive by mere chance were writhing among the countless dead in the fire and smoke. Some took shelter; others waited helplessly for relief and rescue, unable to move.
1 Kitaoka Hiroyoshi (ed.), Nagasaki seiki genshibakudanki (Nagasaki Precision Instruments Company Atomic Bomb Records)(Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Co., 1949), pp.1-3. ^
2 Miyazaki Akio, Genbaku zengo (Before and After the Atomic Bombing) Vol.4, edited by Hideo Shirai) ^
3 Nakata Katsujirō, Genbaku zengo (Before and After the Atomic Bombing) Vol.18, edited by Hideo Shirai) ^
4 Nagasaki heiki seisakushoshi (History of the Nagasaki Arms Factory) (1945), pp.52-7. ^
5 Ginryōkai (ed.), Genbaku no omoide: Mitsubishi nagasaki seisakusho genbakutaikenki (Memories of the Atomic Bombing: Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory Atomic Bomb Records)(1975), pp.86-9. ^
6 Nagasaki City (ed.), Nagasaki shisei rokujūgonen shi (Sixty-Five-Year History of the Nagasaki Municipal Administration) Vol.2,(Nagasaki City Hall, 1969), p.487. ^
7 Nagasaki Electric Company Labor Union (ed.), Rondan Hishirō Vol.16 (1975), pp.58-61 ^
8 Nishi-Nippon Jūkōgyō Kabushikaisha Nagasaki Zōsenjo (ed.), Mitsubishi nagasaki zōsenjoshi zokuhen (History of the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Shipyard), Vol.2, p.123-5. ^
9 Junshin Joshi Gakuen (ed.), Junshin gakutotai junnan no kiroku (A Record of Casualties among the Junshin Student Workers)(1961), pp.331-351. ^
10 Iwasaki Seiichi, Genbaku zengo (Before and After the Atomic Bombing), edited by Shirai Hideo (1969), Vol.2. ^
11 Fujii Sōichi ^
12 Furuichi Shigeo (Saiwaimachi factory payroll section sub-section chief) ^
13 Kinoshita Tatsuo (machine shop) ^
14 Shirai Hideo (ed.), Genbaku zengo (Before and After the Atomic Bombing) Vols.2,4,5,6,13,18,32,33,34) ^
15 Senji gyōkei jitsuroku (Record of Prison Convicts during the War) (hadwritten document), pp.1303-5. ^
16 R.E. Bryer, White Ghosts of Nagasaki (personal publication, 1997), pp.110-8. ^
17 Mori Takeshi, Genbaku zengo (Before and After the Atomic Bombing), edited by Shirai Hideo, Vol.5. ^
18 Koga Kouki, Genbaku zengo (Before and After the Atomic Bombing), edited by Shirai Hideo, Vol.32. ^
19 Peter McGrath-Kerr, quoted in Hugh V. Clark, Last Stop Nagasaki! (George Allen & Unwin Australia Pty Ltd, 1984), pp.132-5. ^
20 Jack Johnson, quoted in Hugh V. Clark, Last Stop Nagasaki! (George Allen & Unwin Australia Pty Ltd, 1984), pp.137-40. ^
21 Yamada Masayoshi, Bakushin no shōdo ni tachite (Standing on the Scorched Soil of the Hypocenter), in Shirai Hideo (ed.), Genbaku zengo (Before and After the Atomic Bombing), Vol.28. ^
22 Genbaku hisaifukugen chōsa jigyōhōkokusho (Report from the Survey Project for Restoration of Areas Damaged by the Atomic Bomb) (Nagasaki International Culture Hall, 1980) ^
23 Shirabe Raisuke (ed.), Wasurenagusa (Forget-Me-Not) Vol.5 (Aaru Shobō, 1974) ^
24 Nagasaki City (ed.), Nagasaki shisei rokujūgonen shi (Sixty-Five-Year History of the Nagasaki Municipal Administration) (Nagasaki, 1959), p.486-7. ^
25 Nagasaki no Shōgen Kankō Iinkai (ed.), Nagasaki no shōgen (Nagasaki Testimonies)(Nagasaki, 1974), Vol.6, pp.133. ^
26 Hamazaki Hitoshi, “Nagasaki kōgyō gakkō hibaku no kiroku” (A Record of the Atomic Bombing at the Nagasaki Prefectural School of Technology), Nagasaki no shōgen (Nagasaki Testimonies), (Nagasaki no Shōgen Kankō Iinkai (ed.), 1974), Vol.6, pp.130-40. ^
27 Hirako Shōji, Genbaku Zengo (Nagasaki Seiki Genshibakudan Ki, 1981) Vol.5, p.194 ^
28 Nagasaki Commercial School 75th Anniversary Publication Committee (ed.), Chōshō sotsugyōsei no seikatsu to iken (Life and Thoughts of Nagasaki Commercial School Graduates)(Nagasaki, 1961), p.438. ^
29 Nagasaki Testimonies Publication Committee (ed.), Nagasaki no shōgen (Nagasaki Testimonies) Nagasaki, 1974), Vol.6, p.121-2. ^
30 Junshin Joshi Gakuen (ed.), Junshin joshigakutotai junnan no kiroku (Record of Fatalities among Mobilized Students from Junshin Women’s School)(Nagasaki, 1961), pp.335-63. ^
31 Genshibakudan saigai jōkyō hōkokusho (Report on Damages from the Atomic Bombing Disaster)(Fuji Shuppan Co., 2011), p.504. ^
32 Monument to Teachers and Students Killed in the Atomic Bombing Maintenance Committee (ed.), Nagasaki genbaku gakkō hisaishi (Report on Atomic Bomb Damages to Schools)(Nagasaki, 1984), p.40. ^
33 Yamamoto Senji, Genbaku no omoide: Mitsubishi nagasaki seikōsho genbaku taikenki (Memories of the Atomic Bombing: Report of an Experience at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks) (Nagasaki, 1975), pp.96-7. ^
34 Nagasaki Seisanitsu Church History Editorial Committee (ed.), Nagasaki seikōkai ryakushi (A Brief History of Nagasaki Seikōkai)(Nagasaki, 1971) p.162. ^
35 Matsuno Hideo, Ano hi no Nagasaki (That Day in Nagasaki) (Shimin Shuppansha, 1985) p.174. ^
36 Matsuno Hideo, pp.50-1. ^
37 Gakudōseitoshi Henshūshitsu (ed.), Dōin gakuto kirokushi “ikinokoritaru warera tsudoite” (Records of Mobilized Pupils: A Gathering of Survivors)(Nagasaki, 1972) p.54-84. Nagasaki Seisanitsu Church History Editorial Committee (ed.), Nagasaki seikōkai ryakushi (A Brief History of Nagasaki Seikōkai)(Nagasaki, 1971) p.162. ^