Part 3: Rescue and Medical Relief
Section 3: Medical Relief Activities
Chapter 3: Activities of Medical Institutions outside Nagasaki Prefecture
1. Ureshino Naval Hospital
2. Accommodations for Atomic Bomb Victims in Kashima
3. Saga Army Hospital
4. Kurume Army Hospital
5. Relief Units from Kyūshū University School of Medicine
List of Medical Relief Dispatch Units
Accommodation and Treatment Relief Center List
The town of Ureshino in Saga Prefecture, site of the Ureshino Naval Hospital, is a hot-spring resort 30 minutes from Sonogi Railroad Station on the Ōmura Line and approximately one hour and 40 minutes from Nagasaki by car. It is said that patients were carried to Ureshino by truck.
According to records preserved at the Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum, of the total of 180 victims accommodated in the Ureshino Naval Hospital, 11 were completely cured and discharged, 135 were discharged in good condition, 33 died and the fate of one remains unknown.
Among the atomic bomb victims accommodated in this hospital, many were transferred from Sasebo Naval Hospital Isahaya Branch after its requisition by American Occupation forces, in addition to those interned there immediately after the atomic bombing.
Many of the atomic bomb victims were carried to Hizen Kashima Railroad Station, currently located approximately 71 kilometers from Nagasaki on the JR Nagasaki Line. The main sites of accommodation there were Shida Hospital (currently located in Kashima City, Otomaru), Kashima Elementary School, and Kashima Saihinkai Hospital.
During the night of August 11 or before dawn the following day, about 37 male and female atomic bomb victims, including children, were transferred to Shida Hospital. Hospital Director Shida Hidetoshi, who had been dispatched to Nagasaki as part of the Kashima Medical Relief Team, set about treating the injured immediately after returning to his own hospital. However, the patients began manifesting symptoms specific to atomic bomb disease and died one after another. After the nearly two-week accommodation period, the survivors had diminished to only one person.
Kashima Elementary School
At Kashima Elementary School, approximately 60 atomic bomb victims were accommodated in the auditorium and tearoom during the afternoon of August 12 (arrival at the station is said to have been in the morning). Members of the local medical association treated the injured. In addition, members of the Kashima Women’s Association took care of the victims, attending to them, cooking and doing laundry in rotation on a daily basis. However, the death toll was high, with four or five people perishing every day.
On August 31, the accommodation of atomic bomb victims at Kashima Elementary School was discontinued because of the resumption of classes. However, only four people were transferred to Oda Clinic in Kashima-chō (which was a town organization in those days). In Kashima Elementary School, the women’s association took a remarkably active role.
Kashima Saihinkai Hospital
In the facility of Kashima Saihinkai Hospital, roughly 20 atomic bomb victims were accommodated around the same time as in Kashima Elementary School.
As described above, approximately 120 atomic bomb victims were accommodated in the three facilities in Kashima-chō (currently Kashima City). However, most of them apparently died within two weeks and their ashes were interred at the Buddhist temple Jōrinji in Kashima-chō.
The death toll in Kashima-chō was higher among slightly injured people than among the seriously injured. Knowledge regarding radiation sickness was still limited. Patients with radiation sickness developed a series of symptoms including hair loss, bloody saliva, fever, bloody stools and diarrhea. The patients deteriorated quickly and died one after another. The physicians were perplexed by the situation, not knowing how to treat them. As a result, autopsies were conducted on the bodies of victims at Kashima Saihinkai Hospital on August 19, after consultations among the local police station, government officials and medical association. Three bodies were prepared for autopsy. The physicians in charge were Kubushiro Ken, Shida Hidetoshi and an assistant, Yamaguchi Umeo.
There is testimony that some of the atomic bomb victims underwent autopsies on August 12 at the Sasebo Naval Hospital Isahaya Branch, but, aside from Kashima-chō, very few autopsies were performed in small towns in Saga Prefecture.
A medical relief unit comprised of 10 members was dispatched from Kashima-chō on August 10 and took an active part in medical treatment in front of Michino’o Railroad Station.
Although the relief activities of Saga Army Hospital are not described even in the “Atomic Bomb Disaster Report” compiled by the Nagasaki Prefectural government, this hospital also organized a medical relief unit on the day of the atomic bombing and sent it to Nagasaki.
According to an investigation conducted by the Japan Broadcasting Corporation (NHK), the Saga Army Hospital ordered the dispatch of Relief Team No. 713 to Nagasaki on the day of the atomic bombing (August 9) and organized a group comprised of several military doctors, clerical assistants and 16 nurses led by Head Nurse Uchida. 72 At around 4:00 a.m. on August 10, the group left Saga Railroad Station, arrived at Nagayo in the afternoon and broke into three teams to provide medical relief at Nagayo Railroad Station, Nagayo Elementary School and Michino’o Railroad Station. The nurse treating an atomic bomb victim in the square in front of Michino’o Railroad Station, captured in the famous photograph by army photographer Yamahata Yōsuke on August 10, is thought to be one of the members of the Saga Army Hospital relief team. The team conducted relief activities at Michino’o Railroad Station for a period of six days and apparently returned to Saga Army Hospital on the night of August 15, the day Japan surrendered.
After the end of the war, this relief team continued to engage in medical relief for the atomic bomb victims who were transferred in large numbers to Saga Army Hospital.
Many soldiers who had been exposed to radiation and sustained injuries while serving in Nagasaki, including those assigned to anti-aircraft installations, were transferred to Saga Army Hospital between August 16 and 19 and received treatment there.
Testimonies of Relief Unit Members
Watanabe Naota (an army orderly at the time)
On the day of the atomic bombing, I had been a private for only about two months since being conscripted into the military and stationed at Saga Army Hospital. Around 1:00 p.m. on August 9, I received the order to assemble in the front yard.
Said the officer in charge: ‘We have just learned that a new type of bomb was dropped on Nagasaki and that the city is in a state of chaos. People exposed to the bombing have sustained serious burns and injuries. We received this message via wireless telephone from the adjacent signal corps. From now on, whenever an air-raid alarm is issued, be careful.’
Low-ranking officers began preparing for the immediate mobilization of a relief mission and packing medical supplies and equipment. I was assigned to the relief unit along with the military doctors, nurses and orderlies because I was a native of Nagasaki Prefecture. The hospital staff remaining behind lined up and saw us off as if we were departing for the battlefield.
We were supposed to depart from Saga Railroad Station on a train leaving at 6:00 p.m. on August 9, but a series of air-raid alarms caused a delay and we remained on standby at the station. Around 8:00 p.m., we received a message from a liaison officer dispatched from the headquarters in Kurume instructing us to hurry to Nagasaki and to report to the Nagasaki Fortress Headquarters. We did not arrive at Isahaya Railroad Station until around 7:00 a.m. the following day, and even after the air-raid alarm was lifted we had to wait at the station due to another air-raid alarm.
When the train arrived at Kikitsu Railroad Station, we received another message from the liaison officer instructing us to split into two teams, one to provide medical relief at Nagayo Elementary School, where the treatment of hundreds of patients was being handled by only one elderly doctor and where little progress had been made. I was among the team that disembarked at Nagayo.
The air-raid shelter in front of the station was already accommodating so many injured people that many were lying outside. When we arrived at Nagayo Elementary School, a staff member came and explained the situation, telling us that the hundreds of people in a school building near the front gate were hopelessly injured and that we should attend to people who could be saved.
Walking into the patients’ rooms, I was taken aback at the strange smell, the moaning patients, and the terrible injuries. I was frightened and wondered why I had become an orderly only to wind up in such a cruel situation. However, there was no time for such thoughts. I began the task of asking patients for information on name and address, and I affixed name stickers to their waists for identification in case they died. I was pushed by the thought that I had to do my best to attend to them.
The patients were lying on straw mats spread on the wooden floor. Some were moaning from pain, and some had terrible burn injuries across their faces that oozed pus and were infested with maggots. Some talked nonsense when I asked their names.
The military physicians and nurses sterilized the wounds of the seriously injured, and I did the same for the slightly injured. The physicians also performed procedures such as the removal of maggots infesting the burn injuries and the extraction of glass shards from the seriously injured. Despite the stench filling the rooms, everybody devoted their utmost to the relief activities.
I made the rounds washing the eyes of the atomic bomb victims. Every room was echoing with agonized moans. The injured were all almost naked. The men were barely covered by torn trousers. The women were wearing baggy work pants but were mostly naked from the waist up. The people of Nagayo Village had provided all of the scanty clothing worn by the victims. In the course of my rounds through the wards to wash eyes, I found six young women, around 20 years of age, lying completely naked in the last room. I was shocked by their injuries, which were so severe that neither the women nor I could feel any embarrassment. In an ordinary situation, I could not have looked at them directly.
I asked a man who seemed to be the father of one of the women why he did not find something to cover his daughter. He replied that she had refused clothing and covers because of the heat.
The women let me wash their eyes without any reluctance. They seemed to be completely exhausted. I was informed that they were teachers at a local elementary school and that they had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion while weeding a potato field.
On the night of August 10, many patients died. One student from Nagasaki Teachers School perished around 11:00 p.m. and was lifted into a coffin by the light of a candle during an air-raid alarm. The coffin was made of old wooden pallets. Nurses from the Japanese Red Cross Society had carefully sterilized the body and put it into the coffin.
On August 11, the dead were carried to the crematorium. People came to the cremations thinking that the victims might be their family members. Things became hectic while crosschecking the names on the list with the tags on the bodies and helping people find family members among the injured.
When I was doing my rounds in the patients’ rooms, I saw a woman of about 20 years of age leaning back on a wood siding wall with her legs stretched out and her head bowing forward sadly.
‘Where are you from?’ I asked.
‘I’m from Amami Ōshima,’ she replied. ‘I was sent to Nagasaki as a mobilized student and experienced the atomic bombing.’
She also told me that she had eaten nothing, not even porridge. I asked her why, and she answered that she had no appetite. I offered her a snack from military rations, but she declined it with words of thanks.
I still get shivers remembering the miserable state of the atomic bomb victims. Only those who visited the dying people and engaged in medical relief can imagine the horrific situation.
Some of the atomic bomb victims began to suffer from diarrhea. The physicians diagnosed the ailment as dysentery and decided to quarantine the patients. However, no such space was available, so I spread straw on the floor of a garden shed nearby and transferred the injured there. A woman from the neighborhood saw that and shed tears for the young women who had ‘probably been mobilized from their hometowns and ended up being crowded into this filthy place!’
While continuing to attend to the injured, we received orders from military headquarters around 7:00 on August 15 to return to our original unit. How could they give us an order to leave when so many people needed help? We did not know the reason, and neither did the military physicians. Everyone agreed that the orderlies should continue to attend to the patients. However, we had no choice but to obey the command of the military, and we headed back to Saga on a train leaving that night. People were saying that the war had ended.
After I returned to Saga Army Hospital, I took care of many soldiers, mainly from the anti-aircraft installations in Nagasaki, who had been exposed to the atomic bomb explosion. My job was to help with their toilet functions and to feed them in bed.
One night, when I was on duty in the wards, one of the soldiers suddenly shouted, ‘air-raid alarm!’ He had probably gone out of his mind. The following day, he died, probably trying to fulfill his duties right up to the moment of death.
In September, the burns suffered by the atomic bomb victims began to heal. After the burned skin was peeled away, the affected areas were red but gradually improved. Many of the soldiers were transferred to the Furuyu Branch spa for further treatment of their injuries.
As a witness to the grim situation after the devastation of Nagasaki by the atomic bomb, I truly hope for a world without war. 73
Kurume Army Hospital was located in the city of Kurume, Fukuoka Prefecture, site of the headquarters of the Western Force 12th Division. On the evening of the atomic bombing, the 177 members of the first medical relief unit left the hospital for Nagasaki. The following day, the unit established a relief station at the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks and began medical treatment for the atomic bomb victims in the hypocenter area including the Shiroyama neighborhood. On the night of August 10, a second relief unit comprised of approximately 50 members arrived in Nagasaki and started medical relief for military personnel in the barracks at Mt. Hoshitori. The unit later transferred the injured to Saga Army Hospital and returned to Kurume Army Hospital around August 16.
The Fukuoka Prefecture Health Division received a request for the dispatch of medical relief units from Nagasaki Prefecture through the Kyūshū Area Governor-General in Fukuoka. In response, the division, already faced with a lack of manpower in the local medical association, asked the Kyūshū University School of Medicine to send a relief unit to Nagasaki.
At the Kyūshū University School of Medicine Hospital, patients were being treated by only a small number of physicians because of an increase in conscription into the armed forces. However, in response to the request of Fukuoka Prefecture Health Division, the clinic organized a relief unit made up of four physicians supported by third-year volunteer students and fourth-year students, who had already been assigned to various medical offices as part of an early graduation program. The unit was hurriedly dispatched, with Dr. Morimoto Kenji in charge.
Records show that the unit had 28 members in total, including the four physicians Morimoto Kenji, Tatsuta Nobuyoshi, Watanabe Kenji and Tokuda Osamu, as well as 22 fourth-year students and two third-year medical students.
The unit caught a night train from Hakata to Nagasaki, leaving at around 11:00 p.m. on August 11 and carrying one or two packs of medical supplies. After a journey fraught with delays, the unit finally arrived in the scorched reddish-brown wasteland of Nagasaki early in the morning on August 12. Fukushige Satoru, who is currently engaged in medical practice in Nagasaki, remembers the stench of death wafting into the train as it traveled through the desolate wasteland of Nagasaki, where no greenery remained even though it was summertime. After getting off at Urakami Railroad Station, one group rushed to Yamazato Elementary School, while another group rushed to Nagasaki Medical College on a military truck. Both groups immediately began treating the injured.
On that day, the Kyūshū University relief unit established headquarters in the restaurant Fūkirō (Kaminishiyama-machi) in the vicinity of Suwa Shintō Shrine and dispatched teams to four places: the ruins of Nagasaki Medical College Hospital, Nagasaki Vocational School of Economics, Yamazato Elementary School and Shinkōzen Elementary School. From the following day, the members provided treatment to the atomic bombing victims in each facility. Fūkirō, the headquarters, was teeming with members of women’s volunteer labor units who lodged in the building, huddling together without blankets under mosquito nets.
The first relief unit left Nagasaki on the day following the end of the war (August 16), after five days of dedicated activities, and returned to their university. Their mission was then taken over by a second relief unit. Dr. Watanabe Kenji, a member of the first unit, remembered the situation as follows:
In the night on August 11, our train left Hakata, waited for a long time at a railroad station on the way, and arrived at Nagasaki some time in the morning of the next day. Emerging from a tunnel near Isahaya, we saw scorched mountains on all sides. As the train rolled on, the town became more and more devastated. To the right we saw that the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory had collapsed, leaving only wildly twisted iron frames. I will never forget the scenes of purplish corpses glimpsed among the beams of collapsed houses near the railroad tracks, nor the bent and distorted iron frames of the platform at the railroad station when we arrived.
My unit established a relief center at the Nagasaki Medical College, in a reinforced concrete building with the windows blown out, the interior gutted and the floors coated with ashes. I still vividly remember the scene viewed from a second floor window during my first round inside the building: a hill dotted with pillars of smoke, where countless corpses were laid out between charred stumps of trees. The people I saw on the hill were sometimes carrying corpses. I went down the stairs to the first floor and swept away the ashes to create a space for straw mats. We started to lay the injured on the mats, people who had been carried into the relief center on stretchers. Before long, all the straw mats were occupied.
For a while after that, newly arriving casualties were placed directly on the floor from which the ashes had been swept. We removed the ragged clothes from the injured, smeared zinc oxide oil on their lower bodies, which were peeling badly, and applied gauze pads to the affected regions. However, we had no sheets to cover their lower bodies. The intravenous injection of a small amount of glucose was all we could give them. We had no choice but to provide the most rudimentary treatment.
By the following day, most of the injured lying in the relief center on the first day had breathed their last. Although some patients with minor burns and injuries helped us after their treatment, by evening those patients began to complain of feeling run-down and suffering from bloody stools. Once they lay down, they could not get up again, and they were dead by the following day. Many patients developed bloody stools in the same way. At first, I suspected dysentery when I saw a patient suffering from that condition, but I soon realized that the symptoms differed from any in my previous experience of dysentery. Also, dysentery does not kill a victim so easily. I wondered what was causing the high death toll, but could not think of anything. Not knowing the cause, I had to conclude that our treatment was of little effect in preventing death. We broke ampules and poured the meaningless injection solution into the patients’ mouths. Witnessing patients swallowing the solution, I thought of the custom of moistening a dying person's lips with water. I can remember that I felt my eyes fill with tears, and joined my hands in prayer.
Patients with slight burn injuries also died one after another after suffering from bloody stools. Those patients were quite different from the patients with burn injuries, who had crowded the corridors in front of my university classrooms during the air raids in Fukuoka. In Nagasaki, there were no flies. In retrospect, we were seeing the symptoms of acute radiation sickness, which the victims were experiencing without their knowledge. Although we continued relief activities on August 13 and 14, all we could do was treat the injuries and watch our patients die. This was the optimal treatment in a place where the hospital that should have accommodated these patients, who had received first aid treatment, had been devastated by a strange new bomb.
On the night of August 14, we were informed that there would be an important announcement on the afternoon of the following day. We continued to treat patients from the morning, watching them die one after another. Around noon, we learned that the ‘important announcement’ was the unconditional surrender of Japan to the Allied Powers. We listened to the news, only half believing it. Around the same time, soldiers drove a loudspeaker truck through the streets shouting, “Although the groundless rumor of Japan’s unconditional surrender is spreading, the imperial forces insist on do-or-die resistance!” Meanwhile, the leader of a naval relief unit that had been conducting relief activities with us said that they had to return to their original unit under an order for “tactical redeployment” a military euphemism for retreat. Saying that they were leaving the remaining patients to us, they disappeared from the relief center. That was proof in my eyes that Japan had indeed announced its unconditional surrender. We would also have to decide what to do. However, what would become of the patients? I continued relief activities on August 15, filled with feelings of pointlessness, anxiety, rage and other mixed emotions in response to the news of Japan’s defeat.
The following day, our leader Dr. Morimoto Kenji sent a request to Kyūshū University for replacements. Kyūshū University readily agreed to the request, but Dr. Morimoto later wrote a note revealing his suspicion that replacements would never arrive.
Dr. Tokuda Osamu, who participated in the first and second relief units, also mentioned the situation in a memoir: ‘It was August 16, I think, that we returned to Hakata. The train was crowded with people who had heard a rumor that the train was the last one leaving Nagasaki. I got on the crowded train at the railroad station and managed to find a seat… After returning to Hakata as a member of the first relief unit, I was again dispatched to the second relief unit as a replacement for the Second Internal Medicine Division. 74
Hirano Keiju, a member of the first relief unit, engaged in various relief activities and voluntarily stayed at the Yamazato Elementary School relief center after the end of the war, transferring patients to Shinkōzen Elementary School when later included in the second relief unit. His memoir sheds light on the situation at the time. Hirano was a third-year student at the Kyūshū University School of Medicine at the time of the atomic bombing.
On August 11, Ishibashi-san from the student affairs division told us (third-year students) that the fourth-year students were to be sent to Nagasaki as a relief unit at the request of the Kyūshū Government-General. The city had been severely damaged by an air raid, and he recommended that we join the relief unit because it was running short of personnel. I decided to join the unit with my classmate, Hama Kiyoshi, because the summer vacation had still not ended.
The unit set out on the night of August 11 and entered Nagasaki the following morning. I remember that since I was undergoing the second surgical division laboratory training during the summer vacation, I was assigned to the same train as Dr. Tatsuta of the same division, soccer club seniors Takagishi and Maruoka, and staff from the Fukuoka Prefectural Office.
On the night of our arrival in Nagasaki, we stayed at Fūkirō, a restaurant located downhill from Suwa Shintō Shrine. On the following day, we were ordered to go to the newly opened Yamazato Elementary School Relief Center. It meant making the journey to Yamazato on foot, carrying medical supplies. I can still remember that the burned corpses were giving off a terrible stench, baking in the summer sunlight. The facility was a poor apology for a relief center. With no medicines, all we could do was smear antiseptic solution onto the patients’ external injuries, and after a while we even ran out of that solution. We were so hard up that we went all the way to the burned-out warehouse of the Nagasaki Medical College Hospital dispensary to see if there was any medicine there. Our daily routine included carrying the dead on stretchers and moving the atomic bomb victims who remained in nearby air-raid shelters.
A few days later, dozens of soldiers from Hario Marine Corps were assigned to the Yamazato Relief Center, and a naval truck arrived. Thanks to the work of the soldiers, many corpses were collected and many atomic bomb victims were carried to this relief center. However, it was a relief center in name only, equipped with blankets arranged in the classrooms that had been left unburned and converted into makeshift wards and which only served as a place for the injured to rest. Everyday, corpses were carried out to the schoolyard and cremated on pyres made from wooden desks and chairs sprinkled with petroleum.
The war ended on August 15. All the unit members were ordered to assemble and were told to give up relief activities and return to the university. It was in the gutted ruins of Nagasaki that I learned of Japan’s surrender to the Allied Forces. All the fourth-year students were said to have returned to the university. The soldiers also hastily returned to their original units. Knowing that the Yamazato Elementary School relief center had no medical staff, and that the others were leaving, I was reluctant to return to my university and leave the atomic bomb victims behind. I decided to stay in the relief center alone, and I said good-bye to the fourth-year students. From the following day, I had to think about meals for the patients in the relief center. Fetching food from the prefectural office became one of my daily routines.
On August 16, I was informed that Shinkōzen Elementary School had been designated a special relief hospital. Under the orders of the military, I closed the Yamazato Elementary School Relief Center and helped transfer all the patients to Shinkōzen on naval trucks. Although I was a navy medical student at the time, I decided to stay at Shinkōzen after transferring the patients because the Shinkōzen Naval Relief Team Chief, Dr. Ikemoto, asked me to stay and help deal with the situation for a while. My daily routine was to measure blood cell counts and extract fragments of glass that had been driven into patients’ bodies by the blast. With only a few materials, the navy physicians were in charge of treatment, and Japanese Red Cross Society nurses were engaged in attending to the several hundred patients who were accommodated in the classrooms from the 1st to 3rd floors, each classroom accommodating roughly 60 patients. However, at that time, no one knew that the symptoms of the patients were caused by atomic bomb radiation, let alone the true nature of atomic bomb disease. We were just making a fuss, suspecting that an outbreak of dysentery had occurred because the patients were suffering from terrible diarrhea. We could only wonder what the red speckles were that had developed all over the patients’ bodies and why they were losing hair. When the burn injuries became infested with maggots, I had to go to the beach in Mogi to collect seawater in metal drums in order to wash their burn injuries. This is only one of my bitter memories of the experience at the relief hospital.
While I was staying behind at Shinkōzen Special Relief Hospital, the Third Internal Medicine Division team led by Professor Sawada Tōichirō and the First Internal Medicine Division team led by Professor Misao Tanshin arrived at the hospital from Kyūshū University around the end of August. In addition, Dr. Katsuki came to conduct investigations, and we asked him for instructions. When the medical staff left Shinkōzen, the patients were transferred to Kyūshū University Hospital. I shuttled between Shinkōzen Special Relief Hospital and Kyūshū University Hospital in Hakata three times, attending to patients. After hospital ships of the Allied Occupation Forces began to arrive in Nagasaki Harbor in early September, the American military physicians brought new medicines such as sulfaminum and penicillin to the hospital and initiated various types of treatment. It was also the first time for the American physicians to treat such patients. I guessed that they were not only providing treatment but also testing various therapies according to each case.
On September 5, the Japanese naval personnel were demobilized and sent home. At the end of my service, the military physician Dr. Ikemoto gave me an honorable mention, saying that since it was the same as a military commendation, I should show it to the dean upon arriving at Kyūshū University School of Medicine. However, I lost it on my way to the university. I still regret that, thinking it could have made a wonderful memento. Of course, I met my classmate Ino in Nagasaki as a relief team member, but I did not know how he had reached Nagasaki.
I also remember that, in mid-September, Dr. Nakajima, professor of radiology, and Dr. Ono, professor of pathology, came to Shinkōzen. Around that time, there were rumors that Shinkōzen Special Relief Hospital would be reorganized as the Nagasaki Medical College Hospital from October. At the end of September, I received a message from Dr. Kaminaka, dean of the school of medicine informing me that classes had resumed at Kyūshū University and that I should return immediately. I returned to Hakata and attended classes from
The Second Aid Unit and Other Investigation Teams
The second aid unit was dispatched in rotation with the first unit, with Dr. Hirao Kenichi, assistant professor of the First Surgery Division, serving as unit leader. Although the second unit is said to have left Hakata on August 16, this is still open to question. It seems that some unit members of the first unit stayed behind to join the second aid unit and that some were delayed, joining the second unit around August 28.
According to testimony from Matsunaga Hidetaka, who joined the first dispatch unit, more than 20 students, including fourth-year students and a few third-year students, participated in the second aid unit led by two persons—Dr. Ishikawa, assistant professor of radiology, and Dr. Hirao, assistant professor in the First Surgery Division. Members of the second unit stayed in the disaster area for one week amid extremely poor living conditions, under the scorching heat, and suffered greatly from fatigue.
The symptoms of atomic bomb disease peaked during the period in which the second unit was in charge.
The list of the second unit included students who were dispatched from each classroom, who accompanied the investigation team and who joined the second unit later. There were more than 40 names in total, with over 30 students, including fourth-year students and some third-year students, as well as nine physicians. However, other individuals seem to have joined the unit when required.
The immediate task of the second relief unit was to attend to the patients who had been left untreated by the first unit. A fourth-year medical student named Ōida Toshirō working with the First Surgery Division described the situation as follows:
It was August 16 or 17, 1945 when I left for Nagasaki after being allowed to join the second relief team, which had been organized before the announcement of Japan’s surrender. I got off the train at Nagasaki Railroad station… I arrived at the entrance of Nagasaki Medical College, which was located on a hill. The interior of the building was completely gutted; the reinforced concrete parts alone remained standing. Naturally, there was no flooring left, except the concrete portions. Most of the atomic bomb victims were lying half-naked on the ash-covered concrete floor, their clothing hanging off in shreds. Their bandages, which had been applied by the first team, were stained brown with secretions and blood from burns. Every room was so crowded with the injured that there was no space to walk without stepping on someone. We immediately began treating the injured, but it took us quite a while just to change their bandages, because most of the burn injuries covered broad areas. After all the gauze pads and bandages had been used up, all we could do was smear zinc oxide oil onto the burns. The injuries must have been painful, but strangely enough very few people complained of pain. Most of them were silent. It was uncanny to see these people quietly breathe their last. One night we carried out more than 50 corpses. There was nothing we could do.
Needless to say, we had no IV drips in those days. We did not even have glucose injection solution. I happened to find a room that looked like a medicine storeroom underground at the college. Entering the storeroom, I heard the sound of ampoules breaking under the thick layer of ash beneath my feet. I dug them up, and found a trove of 20cc ampoules of 20% glucose solution with their labels scorched. We made the best use of them…
We cremated corpses while treating the injured. I learned that the human body burns well and blazes up in the end, spitting fire.
When we tried to carry out the body of a young mother who had passed away during the night, her infant daughter and son clutched the edge of her clothing and would not let go. Climbing on his mother’s breast, the little boy clung to her, craving her milk. We tried to lure him with a rice ball, but he would not give up his mother, only casting a glance at the rice ball. The bandages on the two children’s faces and hands were also stained brown. Those children too, may have passed away before long… Whenever I see my grandchildren who are around their age, I remember those children… 76
Unit Member Okabe Haruya, who joined the first unit, described the situation as follows.
Although I do not remember the precise departure date of the second unit, I also left for the disaster area…
When I went there for the second time, all the atomic bomb injured, who had been laid on straw mats spread on the concrete floor of the burned-out Nagasaki Medical College immediately after the bombing, had died and been completely replaced with patients suffering from other secondary symptoms, including a drop in white blood cell count triggered by radiation sickness. I was terrified to see such a change.
Around the same time, Shinkōzen Elementary School had become a hospital, thanks to the work of the Hario Marine Corps. People who had been displaced in the atomic bombing were accommodated in this hospital, one after another. 77
Matsunaga Hidetaka, another unit member mentioned earlier, continues as follows in his memoir:
I was assigned to the Shinkōzen Elementary School Relief Center. All the classrooms in the reinforced concrete school building had been converted into wards, and the patients were laid out in tight rows on straw mats that had been spread in the space cleared by carrying desks and chairs out to the garden. The floors were so crowded that I had to watch my feet and not step on patients when I was making my rounds. Each room accommodated dozens of patients, most of whom had sustained injuries so terrible that we were left speechless…
They were in such a condition that it was difficult to distinguish the gender of patients or even whether they were dead or alive. A strange stench wafted in the building. The scene before me was like a living hell.
With little medical equipment or supplies, we handled each injection syringe and gauze pad as if it were a precious treasure.
During our rounds in the wards, the task of checking for fatalities among the sick had become our only daily routine… I still remember that, during the stay of the second unit, Professor Ishiyama and Professor Tsuzuki of Tōkyō University visited the facility. I had also heard that Dr. Tamura, professor of ophthalmology at Kyūshū University, was engaged in examining corneal problems together with the students in his class. In September, Dr. Kaida, Dr. Masuya and Dr. Sugiyama from the third department of internal medicine at Kyūshū University launched an investigation of atomic bomb diseases, and Mr. Ikeda and Mr. Hara assisted in their activities. 78
In addition to the second dispatch unit, various teams from Kyūshū University visited Shinkōzen to conduct investigations and treatment. Wada Nobuo from the ophthalmology department provided the following testimony in his memoir:
Professor Tamura and the members of his ophthalmology class visited Nagasaki to investigate the ophthalmological damages caused by the atomic bombing. I was in training in the classroom as a fourth-year student at the time and accompanied the team in rotation. We stayed with Dr. Nakano Kōsei to observe his treatment of the atomic bombing victims accommodated in the elementary school. After that, in addition to Dr. Namai, Professor Tamura and Professor Hirose from Kurume visited the site, and we went along with them to observe their treatment… 79
A third-year student at the Kyūshū University School of Medicine named Hama Kiyoshi left a memoir of his activities providing medical relief and attending to patients for a long period of time (until October 20) after the departure of the first relief unit. His memoir provides a glimpse of the situation faced by the atomic bomb victims and the activities at Shinkōzen Elementary School Relief Center from the perspective of a unit member.
Although I returned to Kyūshū University for the time being from my services as a first unit member, Hirano and I joined the team of Dr. Sawada, Dr. Hirohata, Dr. Ono and Dr. Masuya on August 28 and went to Nagasaki again. During the second visit, I saw approximately 150 people accommodated in the makeshift clinic hurriedly established in Shinkōzen Elementary School.
I remember that, on August 31, the naval personnel left, and that one former navy physician, nurses of the Japanese Red Cross Society, physicians on duty from the Nagasaki Medical Association and our team, including Hirano, Ino, Hama and I, took responsibility for the care of patients. After September 20, the staff from Nagasaki Medical College treated the injured. Staff members from Kyūshū University came there in rotation every five days. In October, a team of American military physicians and Tōkyō University research students visited Shinkōzen to inspect the facilities. On October 10, I received notice from Dean Kaminaka to return to Kyūshū University immediately. However, Dr. Kaida and Dr. Katsuki came and encouraged me, informing me that I could continue providing medical relief to my heart's content. So I stayed in Nagasaki until October 20. The symptoms of the atomic bomb victims were quite different in severity during my first and second visits, but in both cases the situation was extremely wretched, with victims suffering from excruciating agony. That was my experience in Nagasaki during those days. 80
The following is the memoir of a fourth-year student at Kyūshū University School of Medicine, unit member Sato Toshitane, who describes other relief activities, although the location is not known.
After the end of the war, a relief team led by Tomoda Masanobu, professor of the Second Department of Surgery entered Nagasaki, but I don’t clearly remember either the date or who the other members were. I was informed that the site was a Mitsubishi factory located in the vicinity of the railroad station before Nagasaki. When I arrived there, the fires were still burning. The relief center was located in the gutted ruins of a reinforced concrete elementary school building near Nagasaki Railroad Station. I remember that it was a three-night, four-day mission that ended with our return to Hakata the day after the U.S. occupation forces landed in Nagasaki for the first time. 81
It should also be noted that, of the 28 members on the name list of the above-mentioned first unit, five persons are said to have died by 1952. The cause of death is suspected to have been the aid activities in the atomic bombed city.
In addition to the examples introduced in this section, medical relief units from various bodies, including the Western Forces and medical associations of neighboring prefectures and universities, came to Nagasaki to provide help. In addition, the injured were accommodated in various facilities. Of the above-mentioned, the main relief units and accommodations are introduced in the table below.
72 NHK Reporter Team, Nagasaki yomigaeru genbaku shashin (Photographs to Recollect the Nagasaki Atomic Bombing) (Nippon Hōsō Shuppan Kyōkai, 1995), p.220. ^
73 Nagasaki Testimonies Publication Committee (ed.), Nagasaki no shōgen daiyonshū (Nagasaki Testimonies, Vol.4) (Nagasaki, 1975) pp.48-9. ^
74 Memoir of Dr. Watanabe Kenji ^
75 Memorandum of Hirano Keiju ^
76 Memorandum of Ōida Toshirō ^
77 Memorandum by Okabe Haruya ^
78 Memorandum by Matsunaga Hidetaka ^
79 Testimony by ophthalmologist Dr. Wada Nobuo ^
80 Memoir of Hama Kiyoshi ^
81 Testimony of Satō Toshitane ^
List of Medical Relief Dispatch Units
(1) Army & Naval Medical Relief Units
|Name||Mobilization Period||Number mobilized||Abstract|
|Sasebo Naval Hospital
Isahaya Branch Relief Unit
Unit Leader, Military Physician Major Satō Masatoshi
OFs (Officer Designates)
|Aug. 9-10||Approx. 50||Approximately 50 unit members in total, including three or four military physicians, six or seven orderlies, approximately 10 nurses and approximately 30 people from the stretcher unit rode separately on the two or three Japanese Red Cross Society Hospital vehicles, on which medical supplies, rice balls and other necessities were loaded. They arrived in Nagasaki around 4:00 p.m.
Under instructions from Nagasaki City Hall, the unit engaged in first-aid treatment at Irabayashi Elementary School Relief Center. The stretcher unit took an active part in the Mt. Kompira area. After accommodating the injured at the Isahaya Branch, which housed 500-600 patients in total, the unit returned to Sasebo Naval Hospital on the morning of the 10th.
On the 9th, the unit helped provide medical relief together with Professor Koyano, who came from Nagasaki Medical College as a liaison to deliver a message, and Shirotani Katsuaki (Kurume Army Hospital).
|Ōmura Naval Hospital Relief Unit||Aug. 9||35||The 35 unit members, including military physician Dr. Jinnai and orderlies and nurses from the Japanese Red Cross Society, arrived in Nagasaki around 5:00 or 6:00 p.m. on a truck fully loaded with medical supplies and food. Although hurriedly entering the disaster site, the unit could not advance beyond Ibinokuchi due to fires. The unit treated the injured in a relief center established on a bridge over the Mifune River. The unit also treated the injured in air-raid shelters in the vicinity. Running out of medicine and medical supplies three or four hours after commencing treatment, the unit left Nagasaki around 8:00 p.m. or 9:00 p.m. and returned to Ōmura Naval Hospital. (Source: testimony of the nurse Ōkubo Kimiyo)|
|10||35||Jinnai Unit took the field again.|
|11||35||Another relief unit was dispatched as a replacement for the Jinnai Unit.|
|12||38||Another relief unit on the 11th replaced the second unit dispatched on the 11th.|
|13||28||A unit dispatched on the 12th replaced this unit. The relief units dispatched after the 10th provided medical relief in various areas.|
|Kurume Army Hospital
First Relief Unit
Unit Leader Military
Physician First Lieutenant
Ōga Hiroshi Apprentice Officers
|Aug. 10-15||177||Kurume Army Hospital First Relief Unit was organized on August 9, with 177 members in total, including 20 military physicians, 30 nurses and 127 orderlies led by Unit Leader Ōga. At around 7:00 p.m. the first relief unit left Kurume by train, getting off at Michino’o around 11:00 a.m. on the 10th. After that, the unit was under the command of Nagasaki Fortress Headquarters.
Apprentice Officer Mori stopped over at Ōmura and returned to the unit, bringing 20 orderlies, who were natives of Nagasaki, from Ōmura Army Hospital. The unit members totaled 197.
Kurume Army Hospital Relief Unit, based in Mitsubishi Steelworks, raised the flag of the Red Cross Society. They performed their activities in three teams for the Inasa area and three teams for the Mt. Kompira area. Each team had 20 members and was further divided into squads of four or five members each. A squad in charge of Nagasaki Medical College augmented the personnel there and placed particular emphasis on relief activities. The three teams in the Inasa area were headquartered in the tunnel air-raid shelter behind Shiroyama Elementary school. Each squad made the rounds and treated roughly 250 injured persons per day.
The 177 unit members, led by Unit Leader Ōga, continued their medical services until the 15th, then left Nagasaki on the last train of that day and returned to Kurume Army Hospital.
|Saga Army Hospital Relief Unit||Aug.10-15||Approx. 20||Saga Army Hospital Relief Unit departed Saga Station around 4:00 a.m. on August 10. After passing Isahaya Railroad Station on the morning of the 10th, the unit, under instructions from a liaison officer, divided into two teams. One team got off at Nagayo and engaged in relief activities for the injured at Nagayo Railroad Station and Nagayo Elementary School. The other team, which went on to Nagasaki, began treating the injured from the afternoon of the 10th at the temporary relief center in a tent pitched in front of Michino’o Railroad Station. Saga Army Hospital Relief Unit engaged in relief activities until the 15th. Under the command of Nagasaki Fortress Headquarters, the relief unit departed Nagasaki on a train leaving the same night, and returned to Saga Army Hospital.|
|Ōmura Army Hospital Relief Unit
Unit Leader, Military Physician First Lieutenant Fukahori
|Aug. 11-12||30||The Ōmura Army Hospital Relief Unit, led by Unit Leader Fukahori and comprising 30 members in total, including six military physicians, ten nurses and 14 orderlies, headed for Nagasaki by train on August 11.
The unit got off at Michino’o, engaged in relief activities under the instructions of Nagasaki Fortress Headquarters, and returned to Ōmura Army Hospital on the 12th.
|Hario Marine Corps
First Relief Contingent
|Aug. 11-17||249||The relief unit was comprised of seven officers of the Military Physician Section, three officers of the Health Section, two stretcher unit leaders, one vehicle chief, ten operators, ten health workers, 208 orderlies and seven soldiers from the Accounting Section, totaling 249 members.
The First Relief Unit, mobilized by truck on August 11 (the date the relief unit reported), was headquartered and lodged at Shinkōzen Elementary School. The unit’s relief activities commenced on the 12th. Placing importance on accommodating the injured, the unit developed broad scale relief activities, establishing clinics in various places such as Mitsubishi Steelworks, Nagasaki Medical College and elementary schools, and went further afield in the Nagayo and Togitsu areas. The period of activity was six days, during which time the unit treated a total of 3,650 patients.
|Kurume Army Hospital
Second Relief Unit
|Aug. 11-16||Approx. 50||After the first relief unit completed its period of activity, most members, who were natives of Nagasaki, volunteered to participate in the second relief unit as well. Approximately 50 members left Tosu Railroad Station on the night of the 10th and arrived in Nagasaki on the following morning. The unit was headquartered in temporary barracks on Mt. Hoshitori and established a relief center there. Only injured army officers and soldiers, who had been dispersed and accommodated in several places in Nagasaki, were re-accommodated and treated in this facility. The official name of the facility was “Mt. Hoshitori Army Relief Center.” On the 16th, with the end of the war, the unit set out to transfer approximately 300 injured army personnel on a train reserved for the Japanese Army. On the same day, the unit arrived at Saga Railroad Station. After transferring the injured to Saga Army Hospital, the unit returned to Kurume Army Hospital. The 30-40 injured soldiers who had been left behind at Mt. Hoshitori were transferred to Saga Army Hospital on the 19th.|
|Sasebo Naval Hospital
Takeo Branch Relief Unit
Unit Chief Military Physician
Colonel Ikemoto Kenzō
Vice Unit Chief Lieutenant
Military Physician Captain
Military Physician First
|24||A total of 24 unit members, including four military physicians and 20 nurses from the Japanese Red Cross Society, departed on August 12 by train, carrying as many medical supplies as possible. After arriving at Nagasaki Railroad Station around 3:30 p.m., the unit engaged in treating the injured at Shinkōzen Elementary School Relief Center. Since the unit quickly ran out of supplies, Dr. Miake went to the Takeo Branch to replenish equipment and supplies, leading 50 orderlies on the 15th. He transported a variety of equipment, from operating tables to surgical equipment, medical supplies and charcoal braziers, to Shinkōzen Elementary School on four fully loaded trucks. The unit continued relief activities until September 5.|
|Western Force Epidemic
Prevention Team Leader
Officer Designate Aoki Yoshio
|Aug. 13-18||7||As the Western Force Epidemic Prevention Team, Officer Designate Aoki (Nagasaki Medical College Assistant Professor), under the instruction of Western Force District Epidemic Prevention Division Military Physician Takahashi Shōshirō (Nagasaki Medical College Assistant Professor), arrived in Nagasaki on the morning of the 13th, leading six orderlies. Immediately after their arrival, the team made the rounds of the accommodations of Nagasaki Medical College Hospital and the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory main building. They examined patients and treated the injured. The team replenished medical supplies on the 14th, continued treatment, and returned to the Western Forces on the 18th.|
|Sasebo Naval Hospital
First Relief Contingent
|Aug. 16-20||31||The first relief contingent was comprised of 31 members in total, including 16 officers of the Military Physician Section and 15 nurses. Based in the Shinkōzen Elementary School Relief Center, the contingent provided medical relief to the injured, who had been transferred from various temporary relief centers in and outside Nagasaki.|
|Hario Marine Corps
Second Relief Contingent
|Aug. 17-31||239||The second relief contingent was comprised of 239 members in total, including more than 10 officers of the Military Physician Section, three officers of the Health Section, 10 health personnel, 210 orderlies and six soldiers from the Accounting Section.
The second relief contingent replaced the first relief contingent dispatched on the 12th. They carried the injured accommodated in facilities in Shiroyama, Yamazato, Togitsu, Nagayo and other places, to Shinkōzen Relief Center, and provided medical relief. Part of the relief contingent returned to Hario Marine Corps on the 25th; most of the other members returned on the 31st. Some members who remained behind stayed at Shinkōzen Relief Center until September 5 to investigate the medical effects of the atomic bombing.
|Sasebo Naval Hospital
Second Relief Contingent
|Aug. 20-31||44||The second relief contingent was comprised of 44 members in total, including six officers of the Military Physician Section, one officer of the Health Section, two health personnel and 35 nurses.
The contingent replaced the first relief contingent dispatched on the 16th. They continued to treat the injured accommodated in Shinkōzen Elementary School Relief Center until August 31, when they ended their activities and returned to Sasebo Naval Hospital. From the end of August, the Nagasaki City Medical Association took charge of outpatients.
The descriptions of other medical relief units appear in various documents. According to some sources, medical relief units also seem to have been dispatched from the 21st Air Arsenal Medical Division, but the details of both cases remain unknown.
(2) University Medical Relief Teams
|Name||Mobilization Period||Number mobilized||Abstract|
|Kyūshū University School of Medicine
First Relief Team
|Aug. 12-15||28||The Kyūshū University School of Medicine First Relief Team was mobilized at the request of Fukuoka Prefecture. Comprised of students and physicians including Surgical Medical Office Head Physician Morimoto Kenji, the team left Hakata on a night train around 11:00 p.m. on the 11th and arrived in Nagasaki the following morning. Their place of accommodation was the Japanese restaurant Fūkirō. The group divided into four teams assigned to Nagasaki Medical College Hospital, Nagasaki Vocational School of Economics, and Shinkōzen and Yamazato elementary schools. The team continued treatment activities for four days (five days including the arrival day), and returned to Kyūshū University on the 16th, the day after the end of the war. Believing a rumor that there were medical supplies and materials in Nagasaki, the team went to Nagasaki. However, there were actually very few such materials. In Yamazato Relief Center the team members were said to have engaged in treatment using cresol mixed in a bucket with an umbrella handle.|
|Second Relief Team||The second relief team was about the same size as the first team, with 30 members, all of whom engaged in treatment for about one week. (Some of the members stayed in Nagasaki until October 20.)|
|Kumamoto Medical College
First Relief Team
|Aug. 17||56||The first relief team, composed of students and professors including Dr. Kawakita Yasuo, continued treatment activities at Shinkōzen Relief Center for about one week. Many of the members, including Professor Kawakita, had suffered the destruction of their houses in Kumamoto as a result of air raids, and had arrived in Nagasaki bringing only stethoscopes.|
|Second Relief Team||Sept. 4-13||The second relief team also engaged in treatment for ten days from September 4 to 13 at Shinkōzen Relief Center.|
(3) Local Governments’ Medical Relief Teams in Nagasaki Prefecture
|Name||Mobilization Period||Number mobilized||Abstract|
|Isahaya City Relief Team||Aug. 9||8||At the request of Nagasaki Prefecture, the Isahaya Medical Association mobilized a relief team around 2:00 p.m. as an advance party. The team consisted of two physicians including Fujita Takeshi and one nurse. The team arrived in the disaster area on a vehicle owned by the Isahaya Public Health Center. Although the advance party reached the vicinity of Ibinokuchi, it returned to Isahaya due to raging fires and smoke. The five members of the second party, which was composed of four physicians including Tanaka Masato and one midwife, left for the disaster area around 4:00 p.m. in an automobile, spent the night in an air-raid shelter, and later returned to Isahaya.|
|Shimabara City First Relief Team||Aug. 9-11||Approx. 6||The first relief team (Kita Yoshirō, Nakamura Shigeru, Toyonaga Seigi and several nurses) was mobilized along with the Shimabara City Relief Unit by train on the afternoon of August 9, and camped at a point approximately 100 meters south of Michino’o Railroad Station. On the 10th, under the orders of Defense Headquarters, the relief team engaged in treating the injured from around 11:00 a.m. on a flat area near Zenza-machi, where a former gun battery was located. That night, the relief team, along with the injured, camped in an open-air relief center, which was not even equipped with a tent. The team first provided treatment using Mercurochrome and zinc oxide oil (a mixture of olive oil and flower of zinc). When the Mercurochrome and olive oil ran out, they used a mixture of water from puddles and flower of zinc. However, the team finally ran out flower of zinc, and returned to Shimabara on the afternoon of the 11th, having treated from 400 to 600 persons.|
|Shimabara City Second Relief Team||Aug. 10-12||Approx. 7||The second relief team (Higuchi Masaki, Handa Yutaka, Suenaga Yasuji, Itō Issei and several nurses) arrived in Isahaya around 3:00 p.m. on August 10. The team had been ordered to change their destination from Nagasaki to the National Agricultural Experiment Station in Isahaya, where they treated the 200 to 300 injured people accommodated there. That night, they stayed at Danno Clinic in Nagata and on the 11th treated the injured transferred to Nagata Elementary School. On the 12th they returned to Shimabara.|
|Shimabara City Third Relief Team||Aug. 11-12||Approx. 5||The third relief team (Ikeda Tōyō, Matsuda Sueo, Miyata Minori and several nurses) left Shimabara around 4:00 a.m. on August 10, arriving in Nagasaki the following afternoon. Although the members of this team initially treated the injured in Zenza Elementary School, they were transferred to Togitsu-chō in the evening. They provided around-the-clock treatment for patients accommodated in Togitsu Elementary School and returned to Shimabara on the 12th.|
|Shimabara City Fourth Relief Team||Aug. 16-18||7||The names of the relief team members and the activity situation are unknown. (Nagasaki Atomic Bombing Damage Report)|
|Obama-chō Relief Team
Team Leader Miyagi Shigenobu
|Aug. 10-11||6||The six members of Obama-chō relief team, including team leader Miyagi (director of the National Obama Sanatorium) and Matsuo Sueko (Obama Public Health Center), acted in concert with the aid unit of Obama-chō from beginning to end. This relief team, along with the aid unit, loaded medical supplies onto a truck, left Obama on the afternoon on the 10th, arrived in Nagasaki in the evening and had dinner at the Air Defense School in Tateyama. Subsequently, the team provided around-the-clock medical treatment for the injured in a wide area from Inasa to Shiroyama and Ōhashi, treated the injured at Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory Ōhashi Plant the next morning, used up all the medicine and medical supplies that morning and returned to Obama in the afternoon.|
|Arie-chō First Relief Team
Team Leader Isono Shun
|Aug. 9-12||4||The first relief team including team leader Isono and three nurses drove to Nagasaki along with Arie Police Station officers around 3:00 p.m. on August 9 on a truck and arrived in Nagasaki via Shimabara at night. Around midnight, the relief team, under instructions from Defense Headquarters, visited a relief center located on the hillside at Nishizaka and engaged in around-the-clock treatment. The relief team continued treatment on the 11th and 12th at the same relief center and returned to Arie-chō during the night of the 12th.|
|Arie-chō Second Relief Team||Aug. 12-14||7||The second to fourth relief teams (which had been organized in towns and villages under the jurisdiction of Arie Police Station) were organized (Nagasaki Atomic Bombing Damage Report), but neither the names of their members nor details of their activity are known.|
|Arie-chō Third Relief Team||Aug. 13-15||7||Unknown|
|Arie-chō Fourth Relief Team||Aug. 16-18||9|
|Kōjiro Village Relief Team||Aug. 12-14||3||Organized (Nagasaki Atomic Bombing Damage Report)|
|Kuchinotsu-chō Relief Team||Aug. 13-15||6||Organized (Nagasaki Atomic Bombing Damage Report)|
|Yagami Village First
Women’s Militia Unit
|Aug. 14||30||The first to fourth women’s militia units of Yagami Village were mobilized to Shinkōzen Relief Center and Nagasaki Medical College Hospital where they engaged in relief activity aid operations until returning to Yagami Village.|
|Yagami Village Second Women’s Militia Unit||Aug. 15||30|
|Yagami Village Third Women’s Militia Unit||Aug. 17||33|
|Himi Village Women’s Militia Unit||Aug. 15||27||Himi Village women’s militia unit engaged in aid operations similar to those of the Yagami Village women’s militia unit and returned to Himi Village the same day.|
(4) Relief Teams Outside Nagasaki Prefecture and Other Relief Teams
|Name||Mobilization Period||Number mobilized||Abstract|
|Saga Prefectural Office
|Aug. 9-12||4||Accompanying the Saga Police Station Relief Unit, the Saga Prefectural Office relief team (two physicians and two nurses) left Saga on the night of August 9 and arrived in Nagasaki around 8:00 a.m. the following day. The team immediately entered Katsuyama Elementary School and treated the injured until the 12th. Because Saga City was damaged in air raids the same day, the relief team returned to Saga Prefecture on the 13th.|
|Saga Prefecture Kashima
Team Leader Shida
|Aug. 10-11||10||The Kashima Relief Team was comprised of ten members including three physicians (Shida Hidetoshi, Kubushiro Ken and Ishii Masao), two pharmacists (including Onobara Rinshi), three nurses and two health personnel. At 10:00 a.m. on the 10th, the team left Kashima on a truck fully loaded with medical supplies and reached Nagasaki around 4:00 p.m. However, they arrived at Michino’o Railroad Station during the nighttime due to delayed instructions. Their accommodation that night was a room in the station. Early the next morning, the relief team began treating approximately 200 injured people accommodated in the temporary relief center in front of the station. In time, the Saga Army Hospital Relief Unit also arrived at the temporary relief center. However, after consultation with the Saga Army Hospital Relief Unit, the Saga Prefecture Kashima Relief Team discontinued treatment in the evening due to air raids in the Tosu area that day.|
|Saga Prefecture Kishima Relief Team||Aug. 10||10||The composition and arrival time in Nagasaki of the Kishima Relief Team were roughly the same as those of the Kashima Relief Team. The Kishima team parted from the Kashima team at Michino’o Station and headed for the Togitsu area. Details of their activities, however, including relief centers and treatment period, remain unknown.|
|Saga Prefectural Takeo
|Aug. 10-16||10||The Takeo relief team was comprised of ten members including five physicians (Furukawa, Kosoegawa Shigeru, Yamaguchi Shigeo, Amano Chūta), one dentist (Nakao Sadashige), one pharmacist (Tsuji) and three nurses (Kawauchi Mitsuyo and two others). The day before their departure (August 9), the team, feeling as though they were leaving for a battlefield at the news of the devastation of Nagasaki, exchanged parting cups of sake with the director of the Saga Prefectural Medical Association, who had come to encourage the team members. The team had first been asked to prepare for accommodating many injured people who had been transferred to Saga; that was later changed to a request for mobilization to provide medical relief in Nagasaki. After preparing medical supplies on the morning of the 10th, the team departed Saga in the evening and arrived at Nagasaki via Ureshino, Sonogi and Ōmura before dawn on the 11th. Upon arriving at Nagasaki, the ten members worked as a team on a truck, even treating the injured along the roadside, as needed. They performed traveling treatment mainly in Mori-machi, Shiroyama-machi and the ruins of Nagasaki Medical College Hospital. The hospital had many patients who were suffering from diarrhea. The team drove back to Nagasaki Railroad Station on a truck, all the members sleeping together in a huddle. They continued their treatment activities until the 15th, when, at the Air Defense Headquarters in Tateyama, they were told of Japan’s unconditional surrender. They returned to Saga on the 16th. Saga Prefecture received another request from the governor of Nagasaki Prefecture to dispatch a medical relief team, and in response mobilized three relief teams as a second relief party from three counties—Kanzaki, Nishimatsuura and Ogi. The record of their activities is limited to a description regarding the Yamazato Elementary School Relief Center. 82 According to this document, the nine members of the Saga Prefectural Medical Association, including Kamishiro Tatsuo from Kanzaki County, four physicians and six nurses assisted with relief activities, but the mobilization period and other details remain unknown.|
|Tosu Railroad Clinic Aid Unit
Unit Leader Narasaki Hikoe
|Aug. 11||3||Unit Leader Narasaki (director) and two nurses were mobilized on August 11 to provide medical relief to injured workers at both Nagasaki and Urakami railroad stations. However, the aid unit returned immediately after air raids in the Tosu area on the same day.|
|Haiki Railroad Clinic Aid Unit
Unit Leader Harada Tanenori
|Aug. 11-20||9||The Haiki Clinic aid unit, comprised of nine members including Unit Leader Harada, one pharmacist (Ogawa Yasuo), seven nurses (Iwanaga Nobuko and six others), treated about 56 injured people among train crews and their families who had been accommodated in the management office in Nagayo, during the period from August 11 to 15. On the 16th, 40 seriously injured persons were transferred from that accommodation to Isahaya Railroad Training Establishment. The team treated the injured there until the 20th.|
82 Nagasaki Testimonies Publication Committee (ed.), Nagasaki no shōgen daihasshū (Nagasaki Testimonies, Vol.8) (Nagasaki, 1976), p.184 ^
Accommodation and Treatment Relief Center List
○ The accommodation facilities and treatment relief centers are listed hereafter (in random order), regardless of type, that is, existing, temporary or makeshift facilities, in order to illustrate the situation regarding the accommodation and treatment of the injured after the atomic bombing.
(1) Inside Nagasaki City
School Relief Center
|This facility received the highest number of injured immediately after the atomic bombing. It was temporarily closed due to fires in the downtown district, which spread from the Prefectural Office. After resuming treatment of the injured on August 11, the relief center accommodated all the patients from every accommodation as a naval relief headquarters. The facility eventually became the largest accommodation for the injured in Nagasaki, its name changing from Shinkōzen Relief Center to Shinkōzen Special Relief Hospital (subsequently, the name was further changed, to Special University Hospital, then University Hospital). Medical staff members were also transferred from naval institutions, various universities, Nagasaki Prefectural Medical Association and Nagasaki Medical College. Although the number of patients treated immediately after the atomic bombing were as yet unknown, the interim report in the 15-day period from August 17 to 31 revealed that the outpatients treated in this facility numbered 7,927 in total. The number of inpatients on September 1 was 260.|
|This facility was the second largest accommodation for the injured, after the facility in Shinkōzen, where many injured people were treated immediately after the atomic bombing. The injured accommodated in this facility were laid on straw mats spread on the floors of classrooms where the windows had been blown out.|
School Relief Center
|This facility also became a relief center immediately after the atomic bombing.|
School Relief Center
|This is where the navy’s Isahaya Branch Relief Unit conducted treatment activities on the day of the atomic bombing. Many injured people escaped from the hypocenter area via Himi Tunnel after receiving treatment in this facility.|
School Relief Center
|This facility began accommodating the injured from August 10. On August 12, the Hario Marine Corps established a clinic. Around the same time, the delivery of relief supplies from Nagasaki City and the reception of the atomic bomb victims were initiated. On the 25th, the injured accommodated in the Yamazato Elementary School buildings were transferred to relief centers in Shinkōzen Elementary School and the Nagasaki School of Commerce. The clinic, accommodation facilities for the injured and the city government’s branch office in this facility were then closed. Until that time, teams from the Kyūshū University aid unit engaged in treatment activities.|
School Relief Center
|On August 13, the Hario Marine Corps also established a temporary relief center in the gutted Shiroyama Elementary School building; this served as a clinic and accommodation for the injured in the vicinity. On August 24, the facility was closed.|
School Relief Center
|Located next to the Takenokubo area, which had sustained serious damage, Inasa Elementary School became the first relief center and accommodation for atomic bomb victims in the area across the river. Many more injured people were transferred to this facility on stretchers, under the command of the Inasa Police Station, partly because of additional help offered to the facility from the night of the atomic bombing by relief units mobilized from defense units outside Nagasaki. The closing date of this facility is unknown.|
School Relief Center
|On August 10, a clinic and relief center was established here.|
School Relief Center
|This facility was mainly used to accommodate injured workers from the Mitsubishi-related factories and their family members, partly because it had served as a temporary clinic of Mitsubishi Hospital.|
|Japanese Red Cross
|This facility served as a clinic and relief center where many injured people received treatment immediately after the atomic bombing.|
College Hospital Relief
|In Nagasaki Medical College Hospital, a team from the Kurume Army Hospital Relief Center began relief activities from August 10. On August 13, the Hario Marine Corps established a clinic. It also served as accommodation facilities for the injured. The 54 injured people accommodated in this facility as of August 18 were transferred to Shinkōzen Elementary School Relief Center, and the temporary clinic and relief center was closed on August 19. Until then, the Kyūshū University Relief Team engaged in treating the injured.|
|This relief center was established on August 10 or 11.|
|Ōura Relief Center||In Ōura Relief Center, two or three doctors and pharmacists, including Maruki Kiyoshi, took an active part immediately after the atomic bombing, treating the injured until around the end of August. The number of injured treated in this facility was 1,650.|
|On the day of the atomic bombing, the Nagasaki Naval Harbor Guard Unit designated this facility as a temporary relief center. The injured were transferred by sea to Sasebo Naval Hospital.|
|Takagi Hospital||Relief centers, which had been established in various places in Nagasaki after the atomic bombing, were closed one by one. The injured accommodated in those relief centers were transferred to Shinkōzen Special Relief Hospital. However, Takagi Hospital (hospital director Takagi Tomohiro, present-day Juzenkai Hospital) in Hirobaba-machi continued surgical treatment after that, as the only surgical hospital in the disaster area, and played a pivotal medical role along with Shinkōzen Special Relief Hospital.|
|Mitsubishi Hospital||(See “Chapter 1. Activities of Medical Institutions in Nagasaki City”)|
|On the day of the atomic bombing, the Inasa branch was established in Inasa Police Station.|
|Goshinji Temple||In this temple, which was located next to Inasa Police Station, the injured were accommodated and Dr. Aritomi continued treatment.|
Hospital No. 216
|On August 15, this hospital was established in the Nagasaki School of Commerce. The hospital staff provided medical relief to the injured. (See “Chapter 1. Activities of Medical Institutions in Nagasaki City”)|
|Nagasaki School of
|Before this facility came to serve as Military Logistics Hospital No. 216, the Kyūshū University Relief Team created a relief center and treated the injured there.|
|(See “Chapter 1. Activities of Medical Institutions” in Nagasaki City)|
|(See “5. Nagasaki Medical College’s Medical Relief Team” in Chapter 1)|
|Nameshi Relief Center||(See “5. Nagasaki Medical College’s Medical Relief Team” in Chapter 1)|
|On August 10, the Kurume Army Hospital Relief Unit established relief headquarters in the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks main building and accommodated and provided medical relief for workers of this facility and other citizens.|
Ōhashi Factory Temporary
|On August 12, this temporary accommodation was established on the first floor of the technical division in the main building. Thirty members including one doctor from the army hospital unit, seven members including one doctor from the naval hospital unit and three members including one doctor from the Mitsubishi Branch Hospital provided medical relief to the injured. (Source: “Before and After the Atomic Bombing, Vol. 21”)|
|This accommodation was established on August 12, like the Ōhashi plant. Assisting the medical unit, 30 members of the Kurume Army Hospital Military Physicians Unit and several workers in charge of weapons provided medical relief for the injured. (Source: “Before and After the Atomic Bombing, Vol. 21”)|
|Hiramune was a hamlet in front of Michino’o Station. The neighborhood association director and retired navy physician Dr. Miyajima Takeshi opened his own house to the public as a first-aid station. The first patient to visit this first-aid station was an injured elderly man who had been exposed to radiation in the vicinity of Akasako. During the period from the day of the atomic bombing to August 18, the doctor treated approximately 100 injured people daily. (Source: Testimony of Matsuzoe Hiroshi)|
|Daikōji Temple||This temple became the relief headquarters of Kawanami Kōyagishima Shipyard. Injured workers and their family members were accommodated in the main hall from the night after the atomic bombing.|
|Kwassui Women’s High
|A military health team was stationed in this school from the day of the atomic bombing. Coming up the hill, the injured visited this school one after another. The medical staff were able only to treat wounds with a white dough-like medicinal paste mixed in a barrel.|
Army Relief Center
|On August 11, this relief center was opened in a Quonset hut at the Mt. Hoshitori anti-aircraft battery post. The injured army officers and soldiers at the Kompira post and other battery positions had been accommodated in various places in Nagasaki, but they were all relocated to the Quonset hut by the Kurume Army Hospital Second Relief Unit. The unit arrived on the same day as the opening of the relief center and launched relief activities there. After the end of the war, approximately 300 injured people as well as the remaining 30 to 40 injured were transferred to Saga Army Hospital by train on August 16 and 19, respectively.|
|Former Zenza Battery||On a level area that had been the former battery position on the hillside of Zenza-machi, the Shimabara City Medical Association Relief Team treated injured who had evacuated to this spot on August 10 and 11.|
|Mt. Kompira Relief
|Many testimonies and memoirs describe the situation at this relief center, mentioning the fact that approximately 20 seriously injured people were laid out in two rows. However, other details are not known.|
|During the five-day period from August 11 to 15, Muta Pharmacy Villa in Kosedo accommodated approximately ten medical students (including fourth-year student Andō Yasuto), most of whom had been injured. During the same period four people died, and on each occasion the body was taken to Takahoko Island via ship for burial. (Source: “Forget-me-not, Vol. 5”)|
(2) Nishisonogi County
|Jōmanji Temple||At Jōmanji (Shikimi Village) approximately 30 injured people evacuated via Koebaru were accommodated for one week from the day of the atomic bombing.|
|Tanaka Clinic||Members of Tanaka Clinic (Kakidomari, Shikimi Village) treated the approximately 30 injured people accommodated at Jōmanji.|
|From August 10, this hospital received the Kawanami factory workers and families who could not be accommodated at Daikōji Temple in Nagasaki. The number of people accommodated here at the time was about 300. Many of them died.|
|(See “Chapter 2. Factory Aid Unit”)|
facilities in Mogi
|(See “1. Medical Relief in Suburban Areas of Nagasaki City” in Chapter 2)|
|Tagami Yōjōen||From the afternoon of August 9 to the following day, about 150 injured people came to this facility. All the hospital staff, including substitute doctors, seven or eight nurses from Makimoto Clinic and the wife of the hospital director, provided medical relief to the injured. A total of 30 to 40 were accommodated here.|
School Relief Center
|Around 3:00 p.m. on the day of the atomic bombing, three to five injured people arrived on foot at Yagami Elementary School. They told the staff that they could not walk anymore. The number of similarly injured people increased to 50 or 60 that night. In the elementary school, the injured were accommodated in three areas—Chūrei Room (mausoleum), staff room, and principal’s residential area. Fifteen male and female school staff members, including the principal Matsue Matagorō prepared meals and provided first-aid treatment, which included extracting glass fragments from the bodies of injured people and sterilizing wounds. Medical supplies were provided by the Radar Base Establishment Unit Himeji Squad, which was stationed in the school at the time. The injured were accommodated in the school for three days. (Source: “Record of Yagami Elementary School”)|
|Mori Clinic||(See “1. Medical Relief in Suburban Areas of Nagasaki City in Chapter 2)|
|Koga Village Office||In the afternoon on the day of the atomic bombing, the staff of the Koga Village Office accommodated, on the second floor of the office, several seriously injured people who had fled from the hypocenter area on foot. An elderly physician named Dr. Shirono and several nurses were in charge of treatment, and members of the women’s association took responsibility for meal preparation. The injured were accommodated here until the end of August. A number of unidentified corpses were cremated on the hillside. (Source: Testimony of Watanabe Ryōichi)|
Center in Front of
|A temporary relief station was established in front of Michino’o Railroad Station on August 10. It was a 9 m × 18 m wooden building with a roof made from straw mats. Some 200 to 300 injured people arrived over a period of a few days. Here, members of Saga Kashima Relief Team and Saga Army Hospital Relief Unit engaged in treating the injured.|
|Banshōen||This facility in Michino’o Park had been used as a dormitory for Mitsubishi-related workers. Injured Mitsubishi-related factory workers were accommodated and treated here.|
School Relief Center
|(See “1. Medical Relief in Suburban Areas of Nagasaki City” in Chapter 2) Activities of Medical Institutions in Nagasaki Prefecture”)|
School Kōda Branch
|This facility accommodated at least 100 injured people. On August 14, the medical team from Hario Marine Corps came here.|
of Moji Railroad
|(See “Haiki Railroad Clinic Aid Unit” in the above table)|
|Tasaki Clinic||Tasaki Clinic (in Togitsu-chō) served as a relief center for the injured fleeing on foot to Togitsu and Nishisonogi Peninsula.|
School Relief Center
|(See “1. Medical Relief in Suburban Areas of Nagasaki City” in Chapter 2)|
|Muramatsu Village Office||On August 10, 20 to 30 injured people took shelter in Muramatsu Village. They were accommodated on the second floor of the village office. Meals were prepared by members of the women’s association. There were no fatalities among those injured while accommodated at this facility. The accommodation period remains unknown. (Source: Testimony of Satō Tadashi)|
|Nagaura Village||The injured began fleeing to Nagaura Village in the evening after the atomic bombing. In Nagaura, members of the women’s association established a relief center under a huge tree and accommodated the injured and prepared meals. The casualties and accommodation period remain unknown. (Source: Testimony of Tazoe Aoyoshi)|
|Kaku Clinic||Kaku Clinic served as a relief center in the Sotome area. From the day after the atomic bombing (August 10), the clinic started to treat the injured. Once news of the clinic’s opening reached Sotome Village, the injured who had returned to the village the day before came flocking to the clinic. During the week from the day of the atomic bombing to the end of the war, all the clinic staff, including the director and apprentice nurses, worked standing up from early morning till late at night. Around the end of the war, some patients were transferred, using doors as stretchers, all the way from Nagasaki. Treatment in this clinic continued until the end of October.|
|Kawagoe Clinic||Around 5:00 p.m. on the day of the atomic bombing, a student from the Nagasaki Teachers College who had sustained an injury to his hand came to Kawagoe Clinic in Kurosaki Village. From around 8:00 p.m., the clinic became hectic. Inside and outside the clinic thronged with returnees from Nagasaki who had been exposed to the explosion while working in factories, as well as the workers’ family members who had been informed of their return and rushed to the clinic. At that time, the director, two students from Iwate Medical College who were brothers, and five or six nurses including apprentices, were at the clinic. Even so, the clinic was short of help. Families of the hospital staff were also there in full force to assist with treatment. The following day (August 10), the clinic established two treatment centers. One of them served as a temporary first-aid station in the local agricultural office. The staff treated and provided medical relief to injured passers-by who were on their way to areas such as Kōnoura, Yukinoura, Seto, and Nanatsugama. These treatment activities continued for about one week. The temporary relief station closed around the end of the war. The number of patients is said to have been around 200, and about 80 death certificates were left behind here.|
|Tajima Hospital||This hospital, located in Muramatsu Village Saikai-gō (present-day Kinkai-chō) became the only clinic in Muramatsu Village. The injured started to visit this hospital from the afternoon of the day of the atomic bombing. At night, the seriously injured were carried in on stretchers by their families and relatives. The same situation continued over the following days. The seriously injured were carried to the garden as they were and received treatment there. The injured consisted of many people from the neighboring villages of Nagaura and Mie, in addition to many residents of Muramatsu Village. Approximately 100 injured are said to have received treatment in this facility.|
|Nakamura Clinic Keya
|Relief activities in Kikitsu Village were initiated when injured people began arriving by train. The village suddenly had to accommodate them. At the last moment, Nakamura Clinic Director Nakamura Jōichi called off the departure of the youth association members to Isahaya City, from which the village had received a request for assistance in relief activities there. The youth association members thus came to play a pivotal role by replacing the defense unit that was scheduled for dispatch to Nagasaki as an aid unit. The first aid train made a stop at Kikitsu Railroad Station around 3:00 p.m. The Kikitsu Youth Association assembled members of the Keyamyō and Kidokomyō Youth Associations and the women’s association, in addition to staff from the village office and agriculture association, and organized a relief team. The team was composed of 32 people in total, including eight members of the youth association, 13 members of the women’s association, six staff members from the village office and five workers from the agricultural association. Nakamura Clinic was located 100 m from Kikitsu Railroad Station, a distance only a few people could walk. The relief team therefore carried most of the injured on stretchers, the seriously injured on doors. When the injured had been treated, they were relocated to the Keya Youth Club on carts or stretchers. By the evening of that day, Nakamura Clinic was crowded with injured people, members of the relief team and their families, from its waiting room and front yard to the long slope in front of it. The injured were carried to this clinic on trucks and trains not only on the day of the atomic bombing, but also on August 10, the day after the atomic bombing. The injured numbered about ten each day. Other than that, there were some injured who had walked to the clinic via Himi Tunnel. After receiving first-aid treatment, the injured walked to the Isahaya area. They came in great numbers, especially on August 10, to such a degree that the clinic had to receive them continuously. The Keya Youth Club facility, with an area of two 12-tatami mat rooms (approx. 400m²), accommodated about 40 injured people at its busiest time. In this facility, several nurses and two female staff members from the village office were exclusively in charge, and together with other relief team members, engaged in treating the injured. On August 19, several injured people who had been left behind in Keya Youth Club were entrusted to Nakamura Clinic, and the facility was closed. At the same time, the 11-day-long activities of the relief team were terminated. Fatalities among those injured while accommodated in this facility reached approximately 20.|
|Enmanji||The Buddhist temple Enmanji, located in Nakadori, Funatsugō, Ikiriki Village, served as a rest station for evacuees beginning around the evening of August 9 and eventually became an accommodation facility for the injured. Those injured received treatment and medical relief at Ogata Clinic nearby. Some people stayed the night in the main hall of Enmanji. On August 10, more evacuees came flocking to the temple. They included many injured. For this reason, the village chief Kahara Kiyoji asked members of the women’s association to treat the injured. Dr. Ogata Hiroshi and his father Hiroto of Ogata Clinic provided first-aid treatment, using a private house next door as a clinic, and also treated the injured in the main hall at Enmanji. By that night, the injured accommodated in the 40-tatami mat main hall numbered 30 to 40. The members of the women’s association engaged in attending to patients until late at night, preparing meals, bandaging wounds with strips of cloth that had been created by tearing up their extra clothing, and giving a broth made from medical herbs to the patients instead of water. On August 15, the day the war ended, only five or six seriously injured patients remained in this facility. Although one of them returned home to Ōmura accompanied by members of the women’s association, other seriously injured people died one after another. According to information compiled later by Nagasaki Prefecture, the injured accommodated at Enmanji, including people who used the temple as a resting place, numbered approximately 150.|
(3) Minamitakaki County
|Kaida Surgical Clinic||Kaida Surgical Clinic in Aino Village started receiving injured people from dusk on the day of the atomic bombing. They had arrived in Isahaya on relief trains and walked to the clinic. Most of them headed for the Chijiwa-Obama area and the Kōziro-Shimabara area after receiving first-aid treatment at this clinic. That day, the injured continued to arrive until late at night. The following day, more injured people came to the clinic. Since the hospital director Dr. Kaida had been mobilized to Nagasaki as a member of the Kitame Medical Association relief team, nurses and the family of the director treated the injured that day. The director returned to the clinic on the morning of August 11, a time when seriously injured people began to be carried in one after another. The clinic, which was equipped with 19 beds, accommodated as many as 40 to 50 injured people. Although a few of the injured were transferred elsewhere, most of them stayed in the clinic for about 20 days. The total number of patients who were treated in Kaida Surgical Clinic numbered between 200 and 250.|
(4) Shimabara City
|Itō Surgical Clinic||People living in Shimabara went to Nagasaki to search for injured family members and relatives. Itō Surgical Clinic (Ueno-chō) accommodated the injured around August 11, a time when the clinic director Itō Issei had been mobilized as a member of Shimabara City’s second relief team. The clinic was equipped with 13 rooms, each of which accommodated two or three patients. So there seems to have been at least 30 or 40 patients in total. Since the clinic had no medical supplies for burn injuries, grated potatoes and pumpkins were applied to the burned areas. The patients were accommodated here until the end of August. While some were discharged, most died. (Source: Testimony by Itō Junko) A situation similar to that of Itō Surgical Clinic was also observed in Isono Clinic (Minamitakaki County, Nishiarie-chō). However, the number of accommodated patients and the accommodation period remain unknown.|
(5) Isahaya City
|Sasebo Naval Hospital
|(See “Chapter 2. Activities of Medical Institutions in Nagasaki Prefecture”)|
Center in Front of
|Isahaya Women’s High School||(Ditto)|
|Isahaya Middle School||(Ditto)|
|Shōōji Temple||Approx. 150 patients were accommodated from August 9 to around August 16|
|Fujita Hospital||About ten patients were accommodated from August 9 to around August 16|
|Nagasaki Prefectural Sanatorium for Teaching Staff was a newly built facility on Mt. Ueno. Injured students from Junshin Women’s High School, who had been accommodated at Isahaya Elementary School, Isahaya Middle School and Isahaya Women’s High School, were all relocated to this sanatorium. The accommodation date was August 13, the fifth day after the atomic bombing. At that time, 38 students of Junshin Women’s Vocational School were accommodated, in addition to five or six female students from other schools. Dr. Takeuchi and his wife, as well as two nurses, engaged in treating the injured every day. The students died one by one, like the teeth of a comb gradually being broken off. Voices singing hymns were heard daily. (Source: “Christians’ Memoirs of the Atomic Bombing in Nagasaki”)|
|The 21st Naval Air
|Members of the 21st Naval Air Arsenal Kyōsai Hospital Isahaya Branch (16 staff members including branch director Dr. Shimizu Kikuo, nurses and board members) evacuated from Ōmura to the former site of Inuo Hospital (the hospital director had been conscripted) in Izumi-machi, Isahaya. At around 4:00 p.m. on the day of the atomic bombing, several injured were carried in by their families on carts and accommodated here. They were the first atomic bomb victims to be accommodated here. Subsequently, trucks came and dropped off injured people, the total number of patients reaching approximately 20. Since this branch was equipped with only ten beds, the patients were accommodated separately in the military physicians’ room, nurse station, hall and director’s residence. All available space was thus occupied by the injured. “The four or five trucks that arrived after that were asked to head for Ōmura. At midnight, a man (said to have been an ophthalmologist from Nagasaki Medical College) came to the branch holding a baby. He seemed to have walked here from Nagasaki. Despite all the efforts of the nurses in attending to an injured baby for four hours, the baby died. One of the clerical assistants created a casket from an orange crate. I clearly remember the doctor telling me, while he was carrying the casket, that with his wife and children all dead, he no longer needed any money, and the money he carried with him was all mine.” The baby was the last patient accommodated at this branch. Treatment activities continued until August 31. Of the approximately 20 patients, only five or six survived. (Source: Testimony of ABCC Head Nurse Kitajima Fusae)|
|Nagata Elementary School||Approximately 200 injured people arrived at Hizen-nagata Railroad Station around 1:00 p.m. on August 11 and were accommodated at Nagata Elementary School. “The train was a special service for the transfer of patients, four of whom had already died. Many patients had wounds infested with maggots. When we raised them by holding their limbs, the skin of some of the patients stuck to the floor. Staff members of the agricultural association and members of the defense unit and women’s association, in full force, transferred the injured students on doors, the men to the north building and the female mobilized students to the east building. The injured were laid directly on the classroom floors, and their places were numbered with chalk. As for patients who had been identified, we took note of their addresses and names, and contacted their families and relevant people. At the time of the atomic bombing, the Taiwanese physician Dr. Kō Kaon was alone in Nagata Elementary School. Although a relief team later came to assist him, the condition of the injured continued to deteriorate because of the poor medical supplies.” About 20 people died daily. The deceased were temporarily buried near a hospital. The injured were accommodated for four days at Nagata Elementary School. In such a short period 82 patients died, approximately 100 were taken home by their families and the remaining 30 or so were transferred on August 15 by the defense unit on carts, each cart bearing one or two patients at a time, to the naval hospital in Isahaya. (Source: Records kept by Isahaya Agriculture Association Nagata Branch Director Mōri Chiyoji)|
(6) Ōmura City
|Ōmura Naval Hospital||(See “Chapter 2. Activities of Medical Institutions in Nagasaki Prefecture”)|
|Ōmura Kaisei Hospital
|Having received the command to accommodate the injured immediately after the atomic bombing, Ōmura Kaisei Hospital accommodated over 100 injured people transferred to Ōmura Railroad Station around 7:00 p.m. Since the hospital had only 15 rooms and 16 beds, the injured were also accommodated in the duty room, preparation room, janitor’s room and hospital director’s residence. The patients included Fukuda Yoshirō, vice director of the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory, workers of Mitsubishi Steelworks and students mobilized from Keihō Middle School. After the injured had been accommodated, nurses commenced treatment with the cooperation of several students from the Nagasaki Women’s Teachers School. The women’s association was asked to prepare meals for the injured. During the accommodation period, which lasted until the end of August, approximately 20 patients died, approximately 50 slightly injured people were discharged and the remaining approximately 30 patients were transferred to Ōmura Naval Hospital.|
|More than 80 injured people who had arrived on a special train around 9:00 p.m. on the day of the atomic bombing were accommodated in this school. While the defense unit was responsible for transporting the injured from Matsubara Railroad Station, the women’s association took charge of preparing meals. As for medical relief activities, five members (three military physicians and two local practitioners) provided first-aid treatment. On August 10, one patient died. On the morning of August 11, six injured patients returned to their hometowns by themselves. Around 4:00 p.m. that day, over 70 injured people were transferred to Ōmura Naval Hospital on defense unit vehicles.|
(7) Higashisonogi County
|Chiwata Elementary School||Around 3:00 a.m. on August 10, 12 male and female injured people were taken from a special train at Chiwata Railroad Station and accommodated in the home economics room at this school by the defense unit. Takenaka Mori, director of the local women’s association, organized a team composed of members of the women’s association and youth association. Each member brought supplies and food and continued nursing day and night for 6 days in alternate shifts. No one died at this facility. When the patients were transferred to Kawatana-chō on the August 17, the members of the defense unit, youth association and women’s association saw them off at the station. (Source: Diary of Takenaka Mori)|
|(See “Chapter 2. Activities of Medical Institutions in Nagasaki Prefecture”)|
School and Haiki
|The Haikichō Defense Unit received a message that a special train was scheduled to arrive at Haiki Railroad Station around midnight after the atomic bombing. The train’s arrival, however, was delayed to around 8:00 a.m. on August 10. The special train consisted of roofed cars and resembled a freight train. Defense unit members carried the seriously injured to eight classrooms at Haiki Elementary School on stretchers, doors and makeshift stretchers created by sticking poles through charcoal sacks. Straw mats had been spread on their floors in advance. Of the 240 to 250 injured accommodated in this facility, most were members of the women’s volunteer labor units and other young people. Three local practitioners and several military physicians from the Sasebo Arsenal Kyōsai Hospital Haiki Branch treated the injured. The local women’s association took charge of meal preparation, provided extra clothing on a voluntary basis, and dressed the labor unit members. They also gathered pickled plums from each household and gave them to the patients. The accommodation period was about ten days, during which time 50 to 60 patients died. Some of the patients were taken home by their families, but the seriously injured who stayed to the end (number unknown) were transferred to the Haiki Branch.|
|Hario Marine Corps
Officers’ Assembly Hall
|This assembly hall located in Haenosaki (then Higashisonogi County Miyamura) served as a temporary accommodation. The Marine Corps had bought the site of the former Fukuda Surgical Clinic and established this facility. It seems to have been equipped with about 30 beds. Some 20 to 30 injured people from Nagasaki, all male, began to be accommodated from the day after the atomic bombing. They were accommodated in this facility for about ten days; the facility was closed after the remaining patients were transferred to branch hospitals in Unzen and Ureshino.|
(8) Accommodation Facilities outside Nagasaki Prefecture
|(See “Chapter 3. Activities of Medical Institutions outside Nagasaki Prefecture”)|
|Koike General Hospital||Late in the afternoon on August 11, about 10 injured people, including Honda Yoshimitsu from the Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms Factory Ōhashi Plant, were taken from a special train that let them off at Hizen Shiraishi Railroad Station. The train had four or five freight cars. The injured were accommodated in Koike General Hospital in Rokkaku Village (Saga Prefecture, Kishima County), which was close to the railroad station. The accommodation period was about half a month, during which time members of the local women’s association and women’s youth association of Rokkaku Village attended selflessly to the injured, saying, “Nagasaki became a scapegoat.” After that, the Koike General Hospital accommodated several more injured people. There were no fatalities, except one person who became mentally deranged and committed suicide after Japan’s surrender was announced over the radio on August 15. The injured seem to have been transferred as far as Nakahara. “Nakahara is a railroad station about mid-way between Shiraishi and Hakata. Victims of the atomic bombing in Nagasaki were transferred one after another to Nakahara. My sister told me that two or three injured gynecology nurses from Nagasaki Medical College came to her house, which was located along the road leading to the station, after a walk of several minutes.” (Source: Memoir of Kusaba Shōzō and “Forget-me-not, Vol. 5”)|
|Saga Army Hospital||Approximately 300 people, including injured soldiers from the anti-aircraft battery positions in Kompira, Inasa, Aburagi and Nakanoshima, were transferred to Saga Army Hospital on a military train. Most of the injured had suffered burns. Although the seriously injured were undoubtedly treated differently, many of the patients with burns on their arms and legs received only rough treatment using instruments such as bamboo spatulas that would tear their skin.|
|Takashima Hospital||On August 11, two injured people were accommodated in Takashima Hospital in Ryūō-chō. The group taken from the train at Hizen Ryūō Railroad Station consisted of three injured people, but one of them died before being accommodated at the hospital. At Hizen Ryūō Railroad Station, members of the local women’s association were waiting, fully prepared, to receive the injured. The injured were carried to a large private house where they were given porridge. They were then transferred to nearby police substations. From the morning of August 12, members of the women’s association who were on duty came to attend to them. Since surgeons were absent, having been called up to deal with the situation in Nagasaki, internists came to examine the injured. Several days later, the injured were transferred to Takashima Hospital.|
The following table is based on the “August 9 Nagasaki City Air Raid Disaster Summary Report” issued by Nagasaki Prefecture on September 1, 1945 and providing the supporting data for the reports to the Emperor by Chamberlain Hisamatsu on an inspection tour of the disaster area. (Although some relief centers were omitted, the data were posted unchanged.)
Data on Accommodation and Treatment Situation of War-injured Patients (September 1)
| by patients
|Nagasaki School of
|Cathedral First Hospital||2,243||70||250||(Urakami Daiichi Hospital)|
|Ōura Relief Center||1,650||27|
|Togiya Elementary School||650||14|
|Japanese Red Cross
Society Nagasaki Branch
|Nagasaki Medical College||2,500|
|Steelworks and Arms
Factory in Mori-machi
|2,800||11||Mitsubishi Nagasaki Steelworks and Arms Factory in Mori-machi|
|Arms Factory in
|2,600||Mitsubishi Nagasaki Arms
Factory Ōhashi Plant
|Inasa Elementary School||3,370||284|
|Tomachi Relief Center||212||1|
|Others (various parts of
|Sasebo Naval Kyōsai
|Assistant Relief Unit||442||293||127||21|
|92||2||8||82||(Ōmura Kaisei Hospital?
|Saga Pref. Kashima